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Imaging

Last 50 Imaging Postings

(Click on title to be directed to posting, most recent listed first, CME offerings in bold)

Medical Image of the Month: Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Medical Image of the Month: Hot Tub Lung
Medical Image of the Week: Chylothorax
August 2018 Imaging Case of the Month: Dyspnea in a 55-Year-Old 
   Smoker
Medical Image of the Week: Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica
Medical Image of the Week: Plastic Bronchitis in an Adult Lung Transplant
   Patient
Medical Image of the Week: Medical Administrative Growth
Medical Image of the Week: Malposition of Central Venous Catheter
Medical Image of the Week: Fournier’s Gangrene with a Twist
July 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Intracavitary View of Mycetoma
Medical Image of the Week: Neuromyelitis Optica and Sarcoidosis
Medical Image of the Week: Pulmonary Amyloidosis in Primary Sjogren’s
   Syndrome
Medical Image of the Week: Post Pneumonectomy Syndrome
June 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Elemental Mercury Poisoning
Medical Image of the Week: Thoracic Splenosis
Medical Image of the Week: Valley Fever Cavity with Fungus Ball
Medical Image of the Week: Recurrent Sarcoidosis Resembling Malignancy
May 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings
   of Severe RV Failure
Medical Image of the Week: Mediastinal Lipomatosis
Medical Image of the Week: Dobhoff Tube Placement with Roux-En-Y
   Gastric Bypass
Medical Image of the Week: Atypical Deep Sulcus Sign
April 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Headcheese Sign
Medical Image of the Week: Chronic Bilateral Fibrocavitary Pulmonary
   Coccidioidomycosis
Medical Image of the Week: Paget-Schroetter Syndrome
A Finger-Like Projection in the Carotid Artery: A Rare Source of Embolic 
   Stroke Requiring Carotid Endarterectomy
Medical Image of the Week: Post-Traumatic Diaphragmatic Rupture
Medical Image of the Week: Bronchogenic Cysts
March 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Acute Pneumonitis Secondary to Boric Acid 
   Exposure
Medical Image of the Week: Traumatic Aortic Dissection
Medical Image of the Week: Blue-Green Urine and the Serotonin 
   Syndrome
Medical Image of the Week: Acute Encephalopathy in a Multiple
   Myeloma Patient
February 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Stomach Rupture
Medical Image of the Week: Methemoglobinemia
Medical Image of the Week: Pulmonary Artery Dilation
Medical Image of the Week: Plastic Bronchitis
January 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis
Medical Image of the Week: Fat Embolism
Medical Image of the Week: Central Venous Access with Dextrocardia
Medical Image of the Week: Mucous Plugs Forming Airway Casts
Medical Image of the Week: Barium Aspiration
December 2017 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Yellow Nail Syndrome
Medical Image of the Week: Moyamoya Disease
Medical Image of the Week: Lemierre Syndrome
Medical Image of the Week: Chemotherapy-Induced Diffuse Alveolar 
   Hemorrhage
November 2017 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Erythema Nodosum
Medical Image of the Week: Pulmonary Mycetoma

 

For complete imaging listings click here.

Those who care for patients with pulmonary, critical care or sleep disorders rely heavily on chest radiology and pathology to determine diagnoses. The Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care publishes case-based articles with characteristic chest imaging and related pathology. The editor of this section will oversee and coordinate the publication of a core of the most important chest imaging topics. In doing so, they encourage the submission of unsolicited manuscripts. It cannot be overemphasized that both radiologic and pathologic images must be of excellent quality. As a rule, 600 DPI is sufficient for radiographic and pathologic images. Taking pictures of plain chest radiographs and CT scans with a digital camera is strongly discouraged. The figures should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively. The stain used for pathology specimens and magnification should be mentioned in the figure legend. Those who care for patients with pulmonary, critical care or sleep disorders rely heavily on chest radiology and pathology to determine diagnoses. The Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care publishes case-based articles with characteristic chest imaging and related pathology. The editor of this section will oversee and coordinate the publication of a core of the most important chest imaging topics. In doing so, they encourage the submission of unsolicited manuscripts. It cannot be overemphasized that both radiologic and pathologic images must be of excellent quality. As a rule, 600 DPI is sufficient for radiographic and pathologic images. Taking pictures of plain chest radiographs and CT scans with a digital camera is strongly discouraged. The figures should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively. The stain used for pathology specimens and magnification should be mentioned in the figure legend.

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Tuesday
Oct022018

Medical Image of the Month: Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

Figure 1. Coronal CT thorax with contrast showing a large apical mass with near complete atelectasis of the right upper lobe, mediastinal extension and effacement of the superior vena cava (arrow).

 

Figure 2. Caval-superficial-umbilical-portal pathway.  EMV = external mammary vein, EV = epigastric vein, IEV = inferior epigastric vein, IMV = internal mammary vein, SEV= superior epigastric vein (2).

 

Figure 3. Axial CT thorax with contrast showing avid arterial enhancement of hepatic segment IV (arrow, hot quadrate sign), consistent with superior vena cava syndrome.

Although superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) may result from internal or external occlusion of the superior vena cava, 60-90% of cases are caused by external compression from malignant tumors, predominately lung cancer and lymphoma (1). Additional causes of SVCS via external occlusion include fibrosing mediastinitis, while internal occlusion may result from pacemaker lead or indwelling central venous catheter thrombosis (1). Symptoms of SVCS, such as facial and neck swelling, dyspnea and cough, typically develop over 2-4 weeks prior to diagnosis, during which collateral vessels develop (2). More severe symptoms of disease include laryngeal edema, cerebral edema, orthostatic syncope secondary to decreased venous return and altered mental status (3). In the presence of SVCS, cavoportal collaterals that may develop include caval-superficial-umbilical-portal pathways and caval-mammary-phrenic-hepatic capsule-portal pathways (3). Figure 2 demonstrates the anastomosis of inferior and superficial epigastric veins with internal and external mammary veins, allowing for recanalization of the paraumbilical vein and drainage into left portal vein. The presence of a caval-superficial-umbilical-portal pathway may be detected as a wedge-shaped area of increased enhancement in segment IV of the liver on CT or MRI, a radiographic finding known as the hot quadrate sign (Figure 3). Following diagnosis of SVCS in the setting of malignancy, goals of management may be palliative or curative and should take into account life expectancy. Endovascular stenting can provide near immediate symptomatic relief of SVCS, but requires the addition of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or combined-therapy if the goals of treatment are curative (1). Although the median life expectancy of a patient with SVCS due to underlying malignancy is often reported as 6 months, the prognosis is dependent on tumor type and the presence or absence of poor prognostic factors, including age >50 years old, history of tobacco use and treatment with corticosteroids (3).

Elliot Breshears MS IV, Lev Korovin MD, and Veronica Arteaga MD.

Department of Medical Imaging

The University of Arizona

Tucson, AZ, USA

References

  1. Wan JF, Bezjak A. Superior vena cava syndrome. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2010;24(3):501-13. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Kapur S, Paik E, Rezaei A, Vu DN. Where there is blood, there is a way: unusual collateral vessels in superior and inferior vena cava obstruction. RadioGraphics. 2010;30(1):67-78. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Manthey DE, Ellis LR. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). In: Todd KH, Thomas CR Jr. Oncologic Emergency Medicine: Principles and Practice. Switzerland: Springer; 2016:211-222. Available at: https://books.google.com/books?id=_qQqDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA211&lpg=PA211&dq=Manthey+DE,+Ellis+LR.&source=bl&ots=MWH6bcbHSf&sig=L7Ul5sfS1sSGBTF5cnK7MvKF9eA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjGkoTC9LrdAhUEEHwKHbV2CF4Q6AEwAHoECAEQAQ#v=onepage&q=Manthey%20DE%2C%20Ellis%20LR.&f=false (accessed 9/14/18).

Cite as: Breshears E, Korovin L, Arteaga V. Medical image of the month: superior vena cava syndrome. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2018;17(4):114-5. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc103-18 PDF 

Sunday
Sep022018

Medical Image of the Month: Hot Tub Lung

Figure 1. Chest radiograph showing diffuse micronodular disease.

 

Figure 2. Representative images from the thoracic CT scan confirming diffuse micronodular disease with a centrilobular distribution.

 

Figure 3. Lung biopsy from VATS showing granulomas. Panel A: Low power view. Panels B & C: High power views.

 

The patient is a 65-year-old man with progressively worsening shortness of breath for 2 months. He had a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypothyroidism and a 40 pack-year history of smoking. He suffered from chronic neck pain and sought relief by spending up to 6 hours daily in a hot tub. Chest x-ray (Figure 1) showed numerous small nodules which were confirmed on thoracic CT (Figure 2). The nodules spared the pleural space consistent with a centrilobular distribution. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage grew Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAC) and a lung biopsy obtained by video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS) showed non-caseating granulomas (Figure 3). Culture of the hot tub water also grew MAC.  He was advised to stop using the hot tub and was treated with prednisone, clarithromycin, rifampin and ethambutol. He rapidly improved though he stopped his therapy after about 3 weeks due to intolerance.  He continued to do well and was asymptomatic when last seen.

Hot tub lung may represent either an infectious process or a hypersensitivity pneumonitis to MAC inhaled from the hot tub. Improvement is usually seen with prednisone, anti-MAC therapy or both (1). The thoracic CT findings are consistent with subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis including areas of ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular nodules, and air trapping on expiratory images (2). Granulomas, a compact collection of macrophages, are a nonspecific finding seen in both infectious (mycobacteria and fungi) and noninfectious lung diseases (sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hot tub lung, and several others) (3). In our patient’s case the clinical history, radiologic findings, lung histology and rapid improvement with removal of MAC exposure are all consistent with hot tub lung.

Allen R. Thomas, MD

Phoenix VA

Phoenix, AZ USA

References

  1. Khoor A, Leslie KO, Tazelaar HD, Helmers RA, Colby TV. Diffuse pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in immunocompetent people (hot tub lung). Am J Clin Pathol. 2001 May;115(5):755-62. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Hartman TE, Jensen E, Tazelaar HD, Hanak V, Ryu JH.CT findings of granulomatous pneumonitis secondary to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare inhalation: "hot tub lung". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007 Apr;188(4):1050-3. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Hutton Klein JR, Tazelaar HD, Leslie KO, Colby TV. One hundred consecutive granulomas in a pulmonary pathology consultation practice. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Oct;34(10):1456-64. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cite as: Thomas AR. Medical image of the month: hot tub lung. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2018;17(3):93-4. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc077-18 PDF