Search Journal-type in search term and press enter
Social Media-Follow Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care on Facebook and Twitter

Imaging

Last 50 Imaging Postings

(Click on title to be directed to posting, most recent listed first, CME offerings in bold)

Medical Image of the Month: Incarcerated Morgagni Hernia
Medical Image of the Month: Pectus Excavatum
February 2019 Imaging Case of the Month: Recurrent Bronchitis and 
   Pneumonia in a 66-Year-Old Woman
Medical Image of the Month: Massive Right Atrial Dilation After Mitral Valve
   Replacement
Medical Image of the Month: Chronic Ogilvie’s Syndrome
Medical Image of the Month: Malignant Pleural and Pericardial Effusions
November 2018 Imaging Case of the Month: Respiratory Failure in a 
   36-Year-Old Woman
Medical Image of the Month: Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Medical Image of the Month: Hot Tub Lung
Medical Image of the Week: Chylothorax
August 2018 Imaging Case of the Month: Dyspnea in a 55-Year-Old 
   Smoker
Medical Image of the Week: Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica
Medical Image of the Week: Plastic Bronchitis in an Adult Lung Transplant
   Patient
Medical Image of the Week: Medical Administrative Growth
Medical Image of the Week: Malposition of Central Venous Catheter
Medical Image of the Week: Fournier’s Gangrene with a Twist
July 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Intracavitary View of Mycetoma
Medical Image of the Week: Neuromyelitis Optica and Sarcoidosis
Medical Image of the Week: Pulmonary Amyloidosis in Primary Sjogren’s
   Syndrome
Medical Image of the Week: Post Pneumonectomy Syndrome
June 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Elemental Mercury Poisoning
Medical Image of the Week: Thoracic Splenosis
Medical Image of the Week: Valley Fever Cavity with Fungus Ball
Medical Image of the Week: Recurrent Sarcoidosis Resembling Malignancy
May 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings
   of Severe RV Failure
Medical Image of the Week: Mediastinal Lipomatosis
Medical Image of the Week: Dobhoff Tube Placement with Roux-En-Y
   Gastric Bypass
Medical Image of the Week: Atypical Deep Sulcus Sign
April 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Headcheese Sign
Medical Image of the Week: Chronic Bilateral Fibrocavitary Pulmonary
   Coccidioidomycosis
Medical Image of the Week: Paget-Schroetter Syndrome
A Finger-Like Projection in the Carotid Artery: A Rare Source of Embolic 
   Stroke Requiring Carotid Endarterectomy
Medical Image of the Week: Post-Traumatic Diaphragmatic Rupture
Medical Image of the Week: Bronchogenic Cysts
March 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Acute Pneumonitis Secondary to Boric Acid 
   Exposure
Medical Image of the Week: Traumatic Aortic Dissection
Medical Image of the Week: Blue-Green Urine and the Serotonin 
   Syndrome
Medical Image of the Week: Acute Encephalopathy in a Multiple
   Myeloma Patient
February 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Stomach Rupture
Medical Image of the Week: Methemoglobinemia
Medical Image of the Week: Pulmonary Artery Dilation
Medical Image of the Week: Plastic Bronchitis
January 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis
Medical Image of the Week: Fat Embolism
Medical Image of the Week: Central Venous Access with Dextrocardia
Medical Image of the Week: Mucous Plugs Forming Airway Casts
Medical Image of the Week: Barium Aspiration
December 2017 Imaging Case of the Month

 

For complete imaging listings click here.

Those who care for patients with pulmonary, critical care or sleep disorders rely heavily on chest radiology and pathology to determine diagnoses. The Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care publishes case-based articles with characteristic chest imaging and related pathology. The editor of this section will oversee and coordinate the publication of a core of the most important chest imaging topics. In doing so, they encourage the submission of unsolicited manuscripts. It cannot be overemphasized that both radiologic and pathologic images must be of excellent quality. As a rule, 600 DPI is sufficient for radiographic and pathologic images. Taking pictures of plain chest radiographs and CT scans with a digital camera is strongly discouraged. The figures should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively. The stain used for pathology specimens and magnification should be mentioned in the figure legend. Those who care for patients with pulmonary, critical care or sleep disorders rely heavily on chest radiology and pathology to determine diagnoses. The Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care publishes case-based articles with characteristic chest imaging and related pathology. The editor of this section will oversee and coordinate the publication of a core of the most important chest imaging topics. In doing so, they encourage the submission of unsolicited manuscripts. It cannot be overemphasized that both radiologic and pathologic images must be of excellent quality. As a rule, 600 DPI is sufficient for radiographic and pathologic images. Taking pictures of plain chest radiographs and CT scans with a digital camera is strongly discouraged. The figures should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively. The stain used for pathology specimens and magnification should be mentioned in the figure legend.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  

Sunday
Sep022018

Medical Image of the Month: Hot Tub Lung

Figure 1. Chest radiograph showing diffuse micronodular disease.

 

Figure 2. Representative images from the thoracic CT scan confirming diffuse micronodular disease with a centrilobular distribution.

 

Figure 3. Lung biopsy from VATS showing granulomas. Panel A: Low power view. Panels B & C: High power views.

 

The patient is a 65-year-old man with progressively worsening shortness of breath for 2 months. He had a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypothyroidism and a 40 pack-year history of smoking. He suffered from chronic neck pain and sought relief by spending up to 6 hours daily in a hot tub. Chest x-ray (Figure 1) showed numerous small nodules which were confirmed on thoracic CT (Figure 2). The nodules spared the pleural space consistent with a centrilobular distribution. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage grew Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAC) and a lung biopsy obtained by video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS) showed non-caseating granulomas (Figure 3). Culture of the hot tub water also grew MAC.  He was advised to stop using the hot tub and was treated with prednisone, clarithromycin, rifampin and ethambutol. He rapidly improved though he stopped his therapy after about 3 weeks due to intolerance.  He continued to do well and was asymptomatic when last seen.

Hot tub lung may represent either an infectious process or a hypersensitivity pneumonitis to MAC inhaled from the hot tub. Improvement is usually seen with prednisone, anti-MAC therapy or both (1). The thoracic CT findings are consistent with subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis including areas of ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular nodules, and air trapping on expiratory images (2). Granulomas, a compact collection of macrophages, are a nonspecific finding seen in both infectious (mycobacteria and fungi) and noninfectious lung diseases (sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hot tub lung, and several others) (3). In our patient’s case the clinical history, radiologic findings, lung histology and rapid improvement with removal of MAC exposure are all consistent with hot tub lung.

Allen R. Thomas, MD

Phoenix VA

Phoenix, AZ USA

References

  1. Khoor A, Leslie KO, Tazelaar HD, Helmers RA, Colby TV. Diffuse pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in immunocompetent people (hot tub lung). Am J Clin Pathol. 2001 May;115(5):755-62. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Hartman TE, Jensen E, Tazelaar HD, Hanak V, Ryu JH.CT findings of granulomatous pneumonitis secondary to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare inhalation: "hot tub lung". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007 Apr;188(4):1050-3. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Hutton Klein JR, Tazelaar HD, Leslie KO, Colby TV. One hundred consecutive granulomas in a pulmonary pathology consultation practice. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Oct;34(10):1456-64. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cite as: Thomas AR. Medical image of the month: hot tub lung. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2018;17(3):93-4. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc077-18 PDF 

Wednesday
Aug082018

Medical Image of the Week: Chylothorax

Figure 1. A: CT of the chest (coronal image) demonstrating large right hilar and mediastinal adenopathy, leading to moderate to severe narrowing of the superior vena cava (SVC). B: CT of the chest (axial image) demonstrating moderate to severe narrowing of the pulmonary artery trunk due to compression from mediastinal adenopathy. A left pleural effusion is noted.

 

Figure 2. Pleural fluid sample demonstrating milky, pink fluid. The triglyceride level was 532 mg/dl and cholesterol level 63 mg/dl.

 

A 73-year-old man with untreated stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung was admitted to the hospital with several days of progressively worsening dyspnea on exertion. The chest CT showed a large left pleural effusion with enlarging bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, compression of the superior vena cava and right main pulmonary artery consistent with progressive lung cancer (Figure 1). Therapeutic and diagnostic left sided thoracentesis was performed, removing approximately 450 ml of milky, pink fluid suggestive of hemochylothorax (Figure 2). Analysis of the fluid was significant for 27,720 red blood cells, 476 total nucleated cells with lymphocyte predominance (87%), glucose 158 mg/dl, cholesterol 63 mg/dl, and amylase 28 U/L. The pleural fluid was exudative (protein 4.4 g/dl) with a significantly elevated triglyceride level of 532 mg/dl. No malignant cells were identified in the fluid.

This case illustrates a nontraumatic chylothorax secondary to metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung. The leading cause of non-traumatic chylothorax is malignancy by compression and/or lymphangitic invasion (1). Thoracic duct invasion or leak can only be seen with nuclear medicine scintigraphy; however, this test was not performed on this patient. The appearance of the pleural fluid in chylothorax can be deceiving as less than half of pleural fluid samples will be milky in appearance (2). In addition, milky appearing pleural fluid is not specific for a chylothorax, as milky fluid can be seen in a cholesterol pleural effusion (pseudochylothorax) or an empyema. The detection of chylomicrons on pleural fluid lipoprotein electrophoresis is the definitive diagnostic criterion for chylothorax, however it is not widely available and is costly (3). The classic diagnostic criterion is a pleural fluid triglyceride level of >110 mg/dl in an appropriate clinical setting of mediastinal malignancy, lymphoma, recent thoracic surgery or penetrating trauma to the neck or thorax (4). A pleural fluid triglyceride level between 50 and 110 mg/dl does not exclude the diagnosis of chylothorax and clinicians should perform lipoprotein electrophoresis of the pleural fluid to detect chylomicrons. To distinguish a chylothorax from a pseudochylothorax (both have milky appearance), clinicians should obtain a cholesterol level on the fluid. The cholesterol level in a chylothorax is usually less than 200 mg/dl while a pseudochylothorax will have high levels, typically greater than 200 mg/dl.

The patient chose to undergo palliative radiation of the chest and symptomatic treatment of his dyspnea.  

John Dicken MD1, Madhav Chopra MD2, Faraz Jaffer MD2 and Linda Snyder MD2

1Department of Internal Medicine and 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep

Banner University Medical Center-Tucson

Tucson, AZ USA

References

  1. McGrath EE, Blades Z, Anderson PB. Chylothorax: aetiology, diagnosis and therapeutic options. Respir Med. 2010 Jan;104(1):1-8. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Maldonado F, Hawkins FJ, Daniels CE, Doerr CH, Decker PA, Ryu JH. Pleural fluid characteristics of chylothorax. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009 Feb;84(2):129-33. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Hooper C, Lee YC, Maskell N; BTS Pleural Guideline Group. Investigation of a unilateral pleural effusion in adults: British Thoracic Society Pleural Disease Guideline 2010. Thorax. 2010 Aug;65 Suppl 2:ii4-17. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Staats BA, Ellefson RD, Budahn LL, Dines DE, Prakash UB, Offord K. The lipoprotein profile of chylous and nonchylous pleural effusions. Mayo Clin Proc. 1980 Nov;55(11):700-4. [PubMed]

Cite as: Dicken J, Chopra M, Jaffer F, Snyder L. Medical image of the week: Chylothorax. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2018;17(2):70-1. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc100-18 PDF