Search Journal-type in search term and press enter
Social Media-Follow Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care on Facebook and Twitter

Imaging

Last 50 Imaging Postings

(Click on title to be directed to posting, most recent listed first, CME offerings in bold)

Medical Image of the Month: Incarcerated Morgagni Hernia
Medical Image of the Month: Pectus Excavatum
February 2019 Imaging Case of the Month: Recurrent Bronchitis and 
   Pneumonia in a 66-Year-Old Woman
Medical Image of the Month: Massive Right Atrial Dilation After Mitral Valve
   Replacement
Medical Image of the Month: Chronic Ogilvie’s Syndrome
Medical Image of the Month: Malignant Pleural and Pericardial Effusions
November 2018 Imaging Case of the Month: Respiratory Failure in a 
   36-Year-Old Woman
Medical Image of the Month: Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Medical Image of the Month: Hot Tub Lung
Medical Image of the Week: Chylothorax
August 2018 Imaging Case of the Month: Dyspnea in a 55-Year-Old 
   Smoker
Medical Image of the Week: Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica
Medical Image of the Week: Plastic Bronchitis in an Adult Lung Transplant
   Patient
Medical Image of the Week: Medical Administrative Growth
Medical Image of the Week: Malposition of Central Venous Catheter
Medical Image of the Week: Fournier’s Gangrene with a Twist
July 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Intracavitary View of Mycetoma
Medical Image of the Week: Neuromyelitis Optica and Sarcoidosis
Medical Image of the Week: Pulmonary Amyloidosis in Primary Sjogren’s
   Syndrome
Medical Image of the Week: Post Pneumonectomy Syndrome
June 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Elemental Mercury Poisoning
Medical Image of the Week: Thoracic Splenosis
Medical Image of the Week: Valley Fever Cavity with Fungus Ball
Medical Image of the Week: Recurrent Sarcoidosis Resembling Malignancy
May 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings
   of Severe RV Failure
Medical Image of the Week: Mediastinal Lipomatosis
Medical Image of the Week: Dobhoff Tube Placement with Roux-En-Y
   Gastric Bypass
Medical Image of the Week: Atypical Deep Sulcus Sign
April 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Headcheese Sign
Medical Image of the Week: Chronic Bilateral Fibrocavitary Pulmonary
   Coccidioidomycosis
Medical Image of the Week: Paget-Schroetter Syndrome
A Finger-Like Projection in the Carotid Artery: A Rare Source of Embolic 
   Stroke Requiring Carotid Endarterectomy
Medical Image of the Week: Post-Traumatic Diaphragmatic Rupture
Medical Image of the Week: Bronchogenic Cysts
March 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Acute Pneumonitis Secondary to Boric Acid 
   Exposure
Medical Image of the Week: Traumatic Aortic Dissection
Medical Image of the Week: Blue-Green Urine and the Serotonin 
   Syndrome
Medical Image of the Week: Acute Encephalopathy in a Multiple
   Myeloma Patient
February 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Stomach Rupture
Medical Image of the Week: Methemoglobinemia
Medical Image of the Week: Pulmonary Artery Dilation
Medical Image of the Week: Plastic Bronchitis
January 2018 Imaging Case of the Month
Medical Image of the Week: Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis
Medical Image of the Week: Fat Embolism
Medical Image of the Week: Central Venous Access with Dextrocardia
Medical Image of the Week: Mucous Plugs Forming Airway Casts
Medical Image of the Week: Barium Aspiration
December 2017 Imaging Case of the Month

 

For complete imaging listings click here.

Those who care for patients with pulmonary, critical care or sleep disorders rely heavily on chest radiology and pathology to determine diagnoses. The Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care publishes case-based articles with characteristic chest imaging and related pathology. The editor of this section will oversee and coordinate the publication of a core of the most important chest imaging topics. In doing so, they encourage the submission of unsolicited manuscripts. It cannot be overemphasized that both radiologic and pathologic images must be of excellent quality. As a rule, 600 DPI is sufficient for radiographic and pathologic images. Taking pictures of plain chest radiographs and CT scans with a digital camera is strongly discouraged. The figures should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively. The stain used for pathology specimens and magnification should be mentioned in the figure legend. Those who care for patients with pulmonary, critical care or sleep disorders rely heavily on chest radiology and pathology to determine diagnoses. The Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care publishes case-based articles with characteristic chest imaging and related pathology. The editor of this section will oversee and coordinate the publication of a core of the most important chest imaging topics. In doing so, they encourage the submission of unsolicited manuscripts. It cannot be overemphasized that both radiologic and pathologic images must be of excellent quality. As a rule, 600 DPI is sufficient for radiographic and pathologic images. Taking pictures of plain chest radiographs and CT scans with a digital camera is strongly discouraged. The figures should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively. The stain used for pathology specimens and magnification should be mentioned in the figure legend.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  

Thursday
Nov012018

November 2018 Imaging Case of the Month: Respiratory Failure in a 36-Year-Old Woman

Michael B. Gotway, MD

Department of Radiology

Mayo Clinic Arizona

Scottsdale, AZ USA

 

Imaging Case of the Month CME Information  

Completion of an evaluation form is required to receive credit and a link is provided on the last panel of the activity.

0.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™

Estimated time to complete this activity: 0.75 hours

Lead Author(s): Michael B. Gotway, MD. All Faculty, CME Planning Committee Members, and the CME Office Reviewers have disclosed that they do not have any relevant financial relationships with commercial interests that would constitute a conflict of interest concerning this CME activity. 

Learning Objectives: As a result of completing this activity, participants will be better able to:

  1. Interpret and identify clinical practices supported by the highest quality available evidence.
  2. Establish the optimal evaluation leading to a correct diagnosis for patients with pulmonary, critical care and sleep disorders.
  3. Translate the most current clinical information into the delivery of high quality care for patients.
  4. Integrate new treatment options for patients with pulmonary, critical care and sleep related disorders.

Learning Format: Case-based, interactive online course, including mandatory assessment questions (number of questions varies by case). Please also read the Technical Requirements.

CME Sponsor: University of Arizona College of Medicine at the Arizona Health Sciences Center.

Current Approval Period: January 1, 2017-December 31, 2018

 

Clinical History: A 36–year old woman presented with complaints of shortness of breath and worsening dyspnea on exertion. She had a reported history of central nervous system vasculitis of uncertain etiology, treated with azathioprine and prednisone currently, and cyclophosphamide in the past. Her symptoms reportedly responded well to this regimen. Her diagnosis of central nervous system vasculitis was established 6 months earlier when the patient presented with upper extremity paresthesia, headache, left arm weakness, diplopia, and a right eye visual field deficit, evidently with brain imaging showing some pathologic changes, although those records were not available at her presentation. Reportedly she responded well to her immunosuppressive therapy and her steroid and azathioprine doses had been tapered accordingly. Her past medical history was otherwise remarkable for a history of migraine headaches, depression, childhood asthma, hemorrhagic cystitis due to cyclophosphamide (which prompted discounting this drug in favor of azathioprine for the purported central nervous system vasculitis) in the past, and endometriosis.

The patient is a former smoker for a total of 5 pack-years, quitting years previously. She is the mother of a 3-year-old child. The patient denied alcohol and drug use. A history of penicillin allergy was elicited. In addition to azathioprine and prednisone, her medications included inhaled budesonide, Bactrim, escitalopram, topiramate, and sumatriptan/naproxen sodium as well as a multivitamin. There was some history of fenfluramine/phentermine (“Fen-Fen”) use years earlier.

Her physical examination was largely unremarkable. The patient complained of head pain and was visibly mildly dyspneic, but her lungs were clear and no abnormal heart sounds were detected. Her extremities appeared normal- no ecchymosis, cyanosis, or clubbing was detected. She did have some prior history suggesting the presence of erythema nodosum, now presenting as an erythematous region on the right lower extremity, which underwent biopsy, although changes characteristic of erythema nodosum were not present at her current examination. Reportedly this region had been injured when she bumped the right lower extremity on a chair, and this injury evidently became infected, requiring drainage, yielding cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus and, about 1 month later, Actinomyces israelii. Her vital signs should normal pulse rate and blood pressure, breathing at 26 breaths / minute. Her room air oxygen saturation was 93%.

Frontal and lateral chest radiography (Figure 1) was performed.

Figure 1. Frontal (A) and lateral (B) chest radiography.

Which of the following represents the most accurate assessment of the chest radiographic findings? (Click on the correct answer to be directed to the second of twelve pages)

  1. Chest radiography shows basilar fibrotic opacities
  2. Chest radiography shows bilateral pleural effusions
  3. Chest radiography shows cavitary pulmonary lesions
  4. Chest radiography shows marked cardiomegaly
  5. Chest radiography shows numerous small nodular opacities

Cite as: Gotway MB. November 2018 imaging case of the month: Respiratory failure in a 36-year-old woman. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2018;17(5):119-33. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc114-18 PDF

Tuesday
Oct022018

Medical Image of the Month: Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

Figure 1. Coronal CT thorax with contrast showing a large apical mass with near complete atelectasis of the right upper lobe, mediastinal extension and effacement of the superior vena cava (arrow).

 

Figure 2. Caval-superficial-umbilical-portal pathway.  EMV = external mammary vein, EV = epigastric vein, IEV = inferior epigastric vein, IMV = internal mammary vein, SEV= superior epigastric vein (2).

 

Figure 3. Axial CT thorax with contrast showing avid arterial enhancement of hepatic segment IV (arrow, hot quadrate sign), consistent with superior vena cava syndrome.

Although superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) may result from internal or external occlusion of the superior vena cava, 60-90% of cases are caused by external compression from malignant tumors, predominately lung cancer and lymphoma (1). Additional causes of SVCS via external occlusion include fibrosing mediastinitis, while internal occlusion may result from pacemaker lead or indwelling central venous catheter thrombosis (1). Symptoms of SVCS, such as facial and neck swelling, dyspnea and cough, typically develop over 2-4 weeks prior to diagnosis, during which collateral vessels develop (2). More severe symptoms of disease include laryngeal edema, cerebral edema, orthostatic syncope secondary to decreased venous return and altered mental status (3). In the presence of SVCS, cavoportal collaterals that may develop include caval-superficial-umbilical-portal pathways and caval-mammary-phrenic-hepatic capsule-portal pathways (3). Figure 2 demonstrates the anastomosis of inferior and superficial epigastric veins with internal and external mammary veins, allowing for recanalization of the paraumbilical vein and drainage into left portal vein. The presence of a caval-superficial-umbilical-portal pathway may be detected as a wedge-shaped area of increased enhancement in segment IV of the liver on CT or MRI, a radiographic finding known as the hot quadrate sign (Figure 3). Following diagnosis of SVCS in the setting of malignancy, goals of management may be palliative or curative and should take into account life expectancy. Endovascular stenting can provide near immediate symptomatic relief of SVCS, but requires the addition of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or combined-therapy if the goals of treatment are curative (1). Although the median life expectancy of a patient with SVCS due to underlying malignancy is often reported as 6 months, the prognosis is dependent on tumor type and the presence or absence of poor prognostic factors, including age >50 years old, history of tobacco use and treatment with corticosteroids (3).

Elliot Breshears MS IV, Lev Korovin MD, and Veronica Arteaga MD.

Department of Medical Imaging

The University of Arizona

Tucson, AZ, USA

References

  1. Wan JF, Bezjak A. Superior vena cava syndrome. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2010;24(3):501-13. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Kapur S, Paik E, Rezaei A, Vu DN. Where there is blood, there is a way: unusual collateral vessels in superior and inferior vena cava obstruction. RadioGraphics. 2010;30(1):67-78. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Manthey DE, Ellis LR. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). In: Todd KH, Thomas CR Jr. Oncologic Emergency Medicine: Principles and Practice. Switzerland: Springer; 2016:211-222. Available at: https://books.google.com/books?id=_qQqDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA211&lpg=PA211&dq=Manthey+DE,+Ellis+LR.&source=bl&ots=MWH6bcbHSf&sig=L7Ul5sfS1sSGBTF5cnK7MvKF9eA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjGkoTC9LrdAhUEEHwKHbV2CF4Q6AEwAHoECAEQAQ#v=onepage&q=Manthey%20DE%2C%20Ellis%20LR.&f=false (accessed 9/14/18).

Cite as: Breshears E, Korovin L, Arteaga V. Medical image of the month: superior vena cava syndrome. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2018;17(4):114-5. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc103-18 PDF