Search Journal-type in search term and press enter
In Memoriam
Social Media-Follow Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care on Facebook and Twitter

Pulmonary

Last 50 Pulmonary Postings

(Click on title to be directed to posting, most recent listed first, CME offerings in Bold)

Severe Respiratory Disease Associated with Vaping: A Case Report
September 2019 Pulmonary Case of the Month: An HIV Patient with a
   Fever
Adherence to Prescribed Medication and Its Association with Quality of Life
Among COPD Patients Treated at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Puducherry
    – A Cross Sectional Study
June 2019 Pulmonary Case of the Month: Try, Try Again
Update and Arizona Thoracic Society Position Statement on Stem Cell 
   Therapy for Lung Disease
March 2019 Pulmonary Case of the Month: A 59-Year-Old Woman
   with Fatigue
Co-Infection with Nocardia and Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) 
   in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 
Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Workers Outside the Coal Industry: A Case 
   Series from New Mexico
December 2018 Pulmonary Case of the Month: A Young Man with
   Multiple Lung Masses
Antibiotics as Anti-inflammatories in Pulmonary Diseases
September 2018 Pulmonary Case of the Month: Lung Cysts
Infected Chylothorax: A Case Report and Review
August 2018 Pulmonary Case of the Month
July 2018 Pulmonary Case of the Month
Phrenic Nerve Injury Post Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation
Evaluating a Scoring System for Predicting Thirty-Day Hospital 
   Readmissions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation
Intralobar Bronchopulmonary Sequestration: A Case and Brief Review
Sharpening Occam’s Razor – A Diagnostic Dilemma
June 2018 Pulmonary Case of the Month
May 2018 Pulmonary Case of the Month
Tobacco Company Campaign Contributions and Congressional Support of
   Tobacco Legislation
Social Media: A Novel Engagement Tool for Miners in Rural New Mexico
April 2018 Pulmonary Case of the Month
First-Line Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Including Targeted
   Therapy: A Brief Review
March 2018 Pulmonary Case of the Month
February 2018 Pulmonary Case of the Month
January 2018 Pulmonary Case of the Month
Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia in a Patient
   with Multiple Pulmonary Nodules: Case Report and Literature Review
Necrotizing Pneumonia: Diagnosis and Treatment Options
December 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
First Report of Splenic Abscesses Due to Coccidioidomycosis
November 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
Treatment of Lymphoma and Cardiac Monitoring during Pregnancy
October 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
September 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
August 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
Tip of the Iceberg: 18F-FDG PET/CT Diagnoses Extensively Disseminated 
   Coccidioidomycosis with Cutaneous Lesions
July 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
Correlation between the Severity of Chronic Inflammatory Respiratory
   Disorders and the Frequency of Venous Thromboembolism: Meta-Analysis
June 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
May 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
April 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
March 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
February 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
January 2017 Pulmonary Case of the Month
December 2016 Pulmonary Case of the Month
Inhaler Device Preferences in Older Adults with Chronic Lung Disease
November 2016 Pulmonary Case of the Month
Tobacco Company Campaign Contributions and Congressional Support
   of the Cigar Bill
October 2016 Pulmonary Case of the Month
September 2016 Pulmonary Case of the Month

 

For complete pulmonary listings click here.

The Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care publishes articles broadly related to pulmonary medicine including thoracic surgery, transplantation, airways disease, pediatric pulmonology, anesthesiolgy, pharmacology, nursing  and more. Manuscripts may be either basic or clinical original investigations or review articles. Potential authors of review articles are encouraged to contact the editors before submission, however, unsolicited review articles will be considered.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  

Monday
Sep232019

Severe Respiratory Disease Associated with Vaping: A Case Report

Evan Denis Schmitz MD

La Jolla, CA USA

Abstract

A case of severe respiratory disease associated with vaping cannabinoid oil is reported in a 38-year-old woman. She presented with shortness of breath and nonproductive cough. Chest x-ray and CT scan showed diffuse ground glass opacities and consolidation. Bronchoscopy showed diffuse bronchial erythema and bronchoalveolar lavage contained an increased percentage of eosinophils (59%). She was treated with high dose corticosteroids and rapidly improved.

Case Report

History of Present Illness

A 38-year-old woman complained of worsening shortness of breath and nonproductive cough for four weeks. She used to be able to climb three flights of stairs but now can barely walk ten feet. She had been treated with various forms of antibiotics, inhalers and steroids and was taking 20 mg of prednisone a day on the day of hospitalization. She also received opiates to help control her cough. She denied any hemoptysis, fever, chills, or sputum production. Because of her progressive symptoms she was hospitalized for further evaluation and management.

Past Medical History, Social History and Family History

She has a history of obesity and fibromyalgia. She has a prior history of smoking one to two packs a day for five years quitting approximately 15 years ago. Because of a family crisis she tried vaping cannabidiol (CBD) oil approximately one month prior to admission. She also resumed smoking tobacco one half a pack per day. Her family history was unremarkable.

Medications

She was taking prednisone 20 mg/day and cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril®) for her fibromyalgia. She was also taking codeine cough syrup.

Review of Symptoms

She did have some chest pain associated with her shortness of breath as well as chronic muscle aches and intermittent lower extremity edema. Her review of systems was otherwise unremarkable.

Physical Examination

Vital Signs: BP 137/72 mm Hg, Pulse 84 beats/min, temperature 98.8 °F, respirations 22 breaths/min, height 5’0, weight 231 lbs, SpO2 96%

General: She was morbidly obese and only able to speak in short sentences.

Mouth: Moist. Mallampati 3.

Pulmonary: Faint expiratory crackles. No wheezing.

Cardiovascular: Normal rate, regular rhythm, normal heart sounds and intact distal pulses. Exam reveals no gallop and no friction rub. No murmur heard.

Abdominal: Soft, bowel sounds normal. No distension, mass or tenderness. No rebound or guarding. Centripetal obesity.

Extremities: Normal range of motion. No edema or tenderness.

Lymphatics: No cervical or supraclavicular adenopathy.

Neurological: Alert and oriented to person, place and time.

Skin: Warm and dry. No rash, erythema or pallor. Not diaphoretic. Capillary refill within normal limits. No skin tenting.

Psychiatric: Depressed mood.

Laboratory

Pertinent findings are on her laboratory evaluation include an elevated white blood cell count of 16,850 cells/µL with an increased number of neutrophils. Her electrolytes, liver enzymes, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and urinalysis were within normal limits.

Radiology

Her admission chest x-ray is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. The admission portable chest x-ray showed bilateral patchy pulmonary infiltrates.

To better define the areas of consolidation, a thoracic CT scan was performed (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Representative images in lung windows from contrast enhanced thoracic CT scan showing nonspecific patchy areas of ground glass and alveolar opacities with septal thickening involving both lungs.

Hospital Course

Echocardiography was unremarkable. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage was performed. She had diffuse upper and lower airway erythema and considerable coughing during the procedure. The cell differential revealed an increase in eosinophils (59%) and multiple foamy macrophages. Smears and cultures of the lavage fluid were negative for pathogens. She was treated with high dose corticosteroids (methylprednisolone 1000 mg/day). She rapidly improved over four days with her cough and shortness of breath resolving. A chest x-ray at discharge revealed improvement of the pulmonary infiltrates (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Chest x-ray on the morning of discharge showing near resolution of her pulmonary infiltrates.

Discussion

At the time of this writing (9/21/19) there have been 530 cases of lung injury associated with e-cigarette product use or vaping reported with seven deaths (1).  Nearly three fourths (72%) of cases have been male with two thirds (67%) 18 to 34 years old. Most patients have reported a history of using e-cigarette products containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Many patients have reported using THC and nicotine. Some have reported the use of e-cigarette products containing only nicotine.

At present no specific e-cigarette or vaping product (devices, liquids, refill pods, and/or cartridges) or substance has been linked to all cases. It seems likely that there may be different mechanisms of lung injury from different substances. In support of this concept, the present case had high numbers of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage while other cases have shown an increase in neutrophils (2). Our patient was treated with high dose corticosteroids and did improve while on the corticosteroids. However, the time course does not establish a definite relationship between corticosteroid treatment and her improvement.

At present the CDC recommends refraining from using e-cigarette or vaping products (1). Anyone who uses an e-cigarette or vaping product should not buy these products (e.g., e-cigarette or vaping products with THC or CBD oils) off the street, and should not modify or add any substances to these products that are not intended by the manufacturer.

References

  1. CDC. Outbreak of lung injury associated with e-cigarette use, or vaping. September 19, 2019. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease.html (accessed 9/21/19).
  2. Arizona Thoracic Society. September 2019 Arizona thoracic society notes. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2019;19(3):99-100. [CrossRef]

Cite as: Schmitz ED. Severe respiratory disease associated with vaping: a case report. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2019;19(3):105-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc062-19 PDF 

Sunday
Sep012019

September 2019 Pulmonary Case of the Month: An HIV Patient with a Fever

William P. Diehl IV, DO

Nicholas Villalobos, MD

 

Department of Internal Medicine

University of New Mexico

Albuquerque, NM USA

 

Pulmonary Case of the Month CME Information

Completion of an evaluation form is required to receive credit and a link is provided on the last page of the activity. 

0.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™

Estimated time to complete this activity: 0.50 hours

Lead Author(s): William P. Diehl IV, DO. All Faculty, CME Planning Committee Members, and the CME Office Reviewers have disclosed that they do not have any relevant financial relationships with commercial interests that would constitute a conflict of interest concerning this CME activity.

Learning Objectives: As a result of completing this activity, participants will be better able to:

  1. Interpret and identify clinical practices supported by the highest quality available evidence.
  2. Establish the optimal evaluation leading to a correct diagnosis for patients with pulmonary, critical care and sleep disorders.
  3. Translate the most current clinical information into the delivery of high quality care for patients.
  4. Integrate new treatment options for patients with pulmonary, critical care and sleep related disorders.

Learning Format: Case-based, interactive online course, including mandatory assessment questions (number of questions varies by case). Please also read the Technical Requirements.

CME Sponsor: The University of Arizona College of Medicine-Tucson

Current Approval Period: January 1, 2019-December 31, 2020

Financial Support Received: None

 

History of Present Illness

A 33-year old transgender male to female presented from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic for two months of fevers, intermittent shortness of breath, cough with blood streaked sputum, headache, and nausea. The clinic provider was concerned when labs showed up trending HIV viral load (3.3 million copies) and an absolute CD4 count of 57.

Past Medical History, Social History and Family History

The patient had a history of stage-III HIV diagnosed in 2014 on bictegravir, emtricitabine, tenofovir (Biktarvy) and latent tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed 2017 on isoniazid and B6. She is from Nicaragua and arrived in Albuquerque, NM in 2017. Social history is pertinent for sex trafficking and methamphetamine use.

Physical Examination

Upon admission, the patient’s vital signs were notable for a temperature of 39.2 degrees Celsius, blood pressure of 114/71 mmHg, oxygen saturation of 95% on room air with a respiratory rate of 18 breaths per minute. Physical exam was notable for an absence of rash, palpable lymphadenopathy or cachexia.

Which of the following should be done? (Click on the correct answer to be directed to the second of six pages)

  1. Blood cultures
  2. Lumbar puncture
  3. Sputum for AFB and tuberculosis
  4. 1 & 3
  5. All of the above

Cite as: Diehl WP IV, Villalobos N. September 2019 pulmonary case of the month: an HIV patient with a fever. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2019;19(3):87-94. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc056-19 PDF 

Tuesday
Jun182019

Adherence to Prescribed Medication and Its Association with Quality of Life Among COPD Patients Treated at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Puducherry – A Cross Sectional Study

S Keerti kumar S

B Maharani, MD

R Venkateswara Babu, MD

M Prakash, MD 

Departments of Pharmacology, Respiratory Medicine and Community Medicine

Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute

Puducherry, India

 

Abstract

Introduction: Medication adherence is a major determinant for the success of therapy among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The research objectives of the present study were to assess the adherence to prescribed medications and its association with quality of life among COPD patients, to determine the major factors that influence the medication adherence and to assess patient’s knowledge on COPD and its relation to medication adherence.

Methods: It was a hospital based cross-sectional study. Patient demographic characteristics, smoking and alcoholic status, severity grading of COPD, concomitant disease, affordability of patients to medication, patient knowledge on COPD (Knowledge Questionnaire), adherence to medication and inhaler, major factors influencing adherence, disease control and quality of life (COPD Assessment Test) were recorded.

Results: Most of the patients were non-smokers and patients exposed to occupational air pollutants was high. Complete adherence to prescribed medication was found among 47% (MAS Score 6) of the participants and 81% of the participants were partially adherent (MAS score, range of 1-6). Highly adherent group was found to have high CAT score which was statistically significant. (P=0.020). Major factors for medication non-adherence were forgetfulness (82.5%) and symptomatic relief of illness (12.5%). There was no statistically significant association between individual knowledge questions and medication adherence except the question “COPD medicines prevent the disease from getting worse” (P=0.021).

Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between medication adherence and quality of life. Appropriate health education should be implemented for improving patient awareness and medication adherence.

Introduction

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable and treatable disease that is characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation that is due to airway and/or alveolar abnormalities usually caused by significant exposure to noxious particles or gases (1). In industrialized and developed countries, it is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality (2). The World Health Organization predicts that COPD will become the third leading cause of death by 2030 (3). Currently, various drugs like β2 agonist (long and short acting), inhalational anticholinergics, inhalational corticosteroids and methyl xanthines are utilized to prevent, control the symptoms and also to minimize the occurrence of COPD exacerbations (4,5).

The main factor that determines the success of therapy appears to be medication adherence. The medication adherence rates among COPD patients in clinical trials has been found to be 70 to 90% but in clinical practice it was very low accounting for only 10 to 40% (6-11). Non-adherence to therapy may lead to poor health and increased morbidity and health care cost, which in turn alters the quality of life (12). There appear to be few studies in India on medication adherence among COPD patients. This study is novel in assessing the adherence to drug therapy and its relation to quality of life, patients’ knowledge on COPD and its relationship to medication adherence and major factors influencing the medication adherence among COPD patients attending the tertiary care Institute in one of the Union Territory in India. 

Methods

Study design and setting: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. The study center was a referral hospital for nearby primary and secondary care hospitals and a separate COPD clinic was run every week for treating COPD patients. The study was conducted for a period of 6 months after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee clearance.

Study Population: Eligible patients were those referred and diagnosed with COPD by FEV1 and categorized according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and were receiving medications (with no alterations in treatment regimen during the past 3 months). Since the study was on medication adherence, all the COPD patients attending the outpatient department during the study period were considered. Patients with a history of asthma, allergic rhinitis, hospitalization for COPD exacerbation in last 3 months, heart failure or serious liver disease or renal failure or acute coronary syndrome patients and mental illness patients were excluded.

Data Collection: The patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were interviewed after obtaining their written informed consent. Patient demographic details, smoking and alcoholic status, occupational exposure to air pollutants, age at diagnosis of COPD, duration of COPD, concomitant disease, affordability of patients to medication were recorded. Post-bronchodilator FEV1 was measured with spirometry and grading of COPD was done following Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging (13).  

Questionnaires used: Patient knowledge on COPD was assessed using COPD Knowledge Questionnaire (COPD-Q) (14). It is a valid, reliable and low-literacy tool to assess COPD related knowledge in patients. Adherence to medication and inhaler was evaluated by using Medication Adherence Scale (MAS) and Medication adherence report scale (MARS) (15,16). Reasons for non-adherence (missing or discontinuing the dose) were also obtained from the patients.  Disease control and quality of life was assessed by using COPD assessment Test (CAT) (17). CAT score varies with changes in treatment and exacerbations of disease due to poor adherence. CAT scoring ranges between 0 and 40. Score of

> 30                - very high impact of COPD on patients

>20                 - high impact of COPD on patients

10 to 20         - medium impact of COPD on patients

<10                - low impact of COPD on patients

5                   - very low impact of COPD on patients

Statistical Analysis: Data entry was done in MS Excel 2010.  Data was analyzed using professional statistics package EPI Info 7.0 version for windows. Descriptive data was represented as mean ± SD, median and interquartile range for numeric variables, percentages and proportions for categorical variables. Appropriate tests of significance were used depending on nature & distribution of variables like Chi square test, student’s t test for categorical variables. Values of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Spearman’s correlation test was used to find out the relationship between medication adherence and quality of life.

Results

During the six months study period, 157 COPD patients were contacted. Out of the 157 patients, 19 patients refused to participate in the study, 5 patients were not able to answer appropriately and 42 patients had not satisfied the inclusion criteria. A total of 91 patients completed the study and gave complete responses to the questionnaire. 

Sociodemographic characteristics of the patients were summarized in Table 1.

Table 1. Sociodemographic characteristics of the study participants.

Most of the patients were non-smokers and patients exposed to occupational air pollutants was high. Based on GOLD staging of severity of COPD, 14% were graded as mild, 63% were graded as moderate, 20% were graded as severe and 3% of patients had very severe form of COPD. Concomitant diseases like diabetes, hypertension and hyperthyroidism was found in 74.7% of the participants. Nearly 50% of the participants belong to very low socioeconomic status as per Modified Prasad Classification and medication cost was affordable only by 24.2%.  

Patient responses to COPD – Knowledge Questionnaire (COPD-Q) and its relation to medication adherence were summarized in Table 2.

Table 2. COPD Knowledge Questionnaire responses and its relation to medication adherence among study participants.

*p<0.05 - statistically significant.

There was no statistically significant association between individual knowledge questions and medication adherence except the question “COPD medicines prevent the disease from getting worse” (P=0.021). Average COPD-knowledge score was 6.23 ± 1.57.

Responses to medication adherence scale were summarized in Table 3.

Table 3. Responses to COPD medication adherence.

The adherent sum score ranged between 1-6, 43 (47%) participants who had a sum score of 6 were fully adherent to prescribed medications, 27 (30%) participants had a sum score of 5 and others had a sum score of 1-4 were partially adherent to prescribed medications. The overall medication adherence (range 1-6) among the participants was 81%.

Inhalational medications were used only by 43 (47.3%) patients. Responses to adherence to inhaled medications were summarized in Table 4.

Table 4. Responses to inhalational medication adherence.

MARS sum score was 23.55±3.95. Higher score indicates higher self-reported adherence. MARS sum score ranged between 5-25. Out of 43 patients, 39 (91%) had the sum score in the range of 21-25.

The common reasons for medication non-adherence were forgetfulness (82.5%), symptomatic relief of illness (12.5%), 10% responded that medicines got exhausted and 2.5% reported that it was socially inconvenient to take the medications.

CAT score of the patients and grading were summarized in Tables 5 and 6.

Table 5. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) – Individual item responses.

Table 6. Categorization of study participants based on CAT Score.

There was a statistically significant difference between adherent and partially adherent groups with respect to CAT score of the participants (Student’s t test; p value=0.020).

Highly adherent group was found to have high CAT score. (Table 7).

Table 7. Association between medication adherence score and CAT score.

Student’s t test; p value=0.020.

There was a statistically significant weak positive correlation (r=0.246) between medication adherence sum and CAT score.

Discussion

The patients in the present study had adherence to the medication at 47%. The percentage of adherence was less than the studies conducted in Hungary (58.2%) and Nepal (65%) (18,19). Although complete adherence was less than 50%, majority of the participants were partially adherent to the medications which was at 81% (Table-3). The most common cause for non-adherence was forgetfulness (82.5%). The percentage was very high when compared to other studies in which forgetfulness accounted for about 50% (15,19). 

There was a statistically significant association between medication adherence score and the CAT score similar to the study done by Kocakaya et.al. (20). The study had revealed better the adherence, better the quality of life. Though there is weak positive spearman’s correlation which was statistically significant, it may not be clinically significant. This can be overcome by increasing the sample size. Only 43 participants used inhalational medications and there was higher self-reported adherence to inhalational medications. That data is similar to a study done by Tommelein et al. (16).

In the tertiary care Institute where the study was conducted, patients with moderate and severe symptoms alone were advised to purchase inhaler and during inhaler introduction they were properly trained on how to use the inhaler. Further, compliance to the inhalational medications were checked during each follow-up. Since moderate to severe symptomatic patients were comfortable with inhalational medications, there was high degree of adherence to inhalational medications.

The patient’s COPD knowledge score was 6.23 ± 1.57. It was less when compared to the study done by Ray SM., et al. (7.6 ± 2.1) (14). Awareness of the patients on smoking and its association with COPD, reversal of COPD with quitting of smoking was only around 50% but comparable to prior studies (14). The percentage of COPD patients with smoking was only 22%. The results were similar to the study done by Mahmood T et.al., in which the percentage of nonsmokers with COPD was higher when compared to smokers with COPD (21). It was interesting to note that 100% of the participants were not aware about the importance of flu and pneumonia vaccination. It may be because of poor literacy rate and lack of awareness among the participants.

The results of our study are not surprising and consistent with prior studies. However, sociodemographic factors affect compliance. To our knowledge this is the first study to show the association between adherence and quality of life in COPD in a unique Indian population.

Conclusion

The study showed a statistically significant association between medication adherence and quality of life. Further studies evaluating the impact of education on medication adherence and quality of life are needed.  

References

  1. Vogelmeier CF, Criner GJ, Martinez FJ, et al. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2017 Report. GOLD Executive Summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195(5):557–82. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Viegi G, Scognamiglio A, Baldacci S, Pistelli F, Carrozzi L. Epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respiration. 2001;68:4–19. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. World Health Organisation. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [Internet]. WHO. [cited 2017 Dec 28]. Available from: http://www.who.int/respiratory/copd/en/ (accessed 6/18/19)
  4. Toy EL, Beaulieu NU, McHale JM, et al. Treatment of COPD: Relationships between daily dosing frequency, adherence, resource use, and costs. Respir Med. 2011;105(3):435–41. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Cazzola M, Dahl R. Inhaled Combination Therapy with Long-Acting β2-Agonists and Corticosteroids in Stable COPD. Chest. 2004;126(1):220–37. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Rand CS, Nides M, Cowles MK, Wise RA, Connett J. Long-term metered-dose inhaler adherence in a clinical trial. The Lung Health Study Research Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:580–8. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Kesten S, Flanders J, Serby CW, Witek TJ. Compliance with tiotropium, a once daily dry powder inhaled bronchodilator, in one-year COPD trials. Chest. 2000;118:191s– 192s.
  8. Van Grunsven PM, Van Schayck CP, Van Deuveren M, Van Herwaarden CL, Akkermans RP, Van Weel C. Compliance during long-term treatment with fluticasone propionate in subjects with early signs of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): results of the Detection, Intervention and Monitoring Program of COPD and Asthma (DIMCA) Study. J Asthma. 2000;37:225–34. [PubMed]
  9. Krigsman K, Nilsson JL, Ring L. Refill adherence for patients with asthma and COPD: comparison of a pharmacy record database with manually collected repeat prescriptions. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2007;16:441–8. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Bender BG, Pedan A, Varasteh LT. Adherence and persistence with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118:899-904. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Breekveldt-Postma NS, Gerrits CMJM, Lammers JWJ, Raaijmakers J a. M, Herings RMC. Persistence with inhaled corticosteroid therapy in daily practice. Respir Med. 2004;98(8):752–9. [PubMed]
  12. Montes de Oca M, Menezes A, Wehrmeister FC, et al. Adherence to inhaled therapies of COPD patients from seven Latin American countries: The LASSYC study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(11):e0186777. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2019 report. Available at: https://goldcopd.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/GOLD-2019-v1.7-FINAL-14Nov2018-WMS.pdf (accessed 6/18/19).
  14. Ray SM, Helmer RS, Stevens AB, Franks AS, Wallace LS. Clinical utility of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease knowledge questionnaire. Fam Med. 2013;45(3):197–200. [PubMed]
  15. Dolce JJ, Crisp C, Manzella B, Richards JM, Hardin JM, Bailey WC. Medication adherence patterns in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest. 1991;99(4):837–41. [PubMed]
  16. Tommelein E, Mehuys E, Van Tongelen I, Brusselle G, Boussery K. Accuracy of the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-5) as a quantitative measure of adherence to inhalation medication in patients with COPD. Ann Pharmacother. 2014;48(5):589–95. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Jones PW, Harding G, Berry P, Wiklund I, Chen WH, Kline Leidy N. Development and first validation of the COPD Assessment Test. Eur Respir J. 2009;34:648-654. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Agh T, Inotai A, Meszaros A. Factors Associated with Medication Adherence in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Respiration. 2011;82(4):328–34. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Shrestha R, Pant A, Shakya Shrestha S, Shrestha B, Gurung RB, Karmacharya BM. A Cross-Sectional Study of Medication Adherence Pattern and Factors Affecting the Adherence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2015;13(49):64–70. [PubMed]
  20. Kocakaya D, Yıldızeli ŞO, Arıkan H, et al. The relationship between symptom scores and medication adherence in stable COPD patients. Eur Respir J. 2017;50(61):PA1062.
  21. Mahmood T, Singh RK, Kant S, Shukla AD, Chandra A, Srivastava RK. Prevalence and etiological profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmokers. Lung India. 2017;34(2):122–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cite as: kumar S KS, Maharni B, Babu RV, Prakash M. Adherence to prescribed medication and its association with quality of life among COPD patients treated at a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry – a cross sectional study. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2019;18(6):157-66. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc021-19 PDF 

Saturday
Jun012019

June 2019 Pulmonary Case of the Month: Try, Try Again

Lewis J. Wesselius, MD

Department of Pulmonary Medicine

Mayo Clinic Arizona

Scottsdale, AZ USA

 

Pulmonary Case of the Month CME Information

Completion of an evaluation form is required to receive credit and a link is provided on the last page of the activity. 

0.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™

Estimated time to complete this activity: 0.50 hours

Lead Author(s): Lewis J. Wesselius, MD. All Faculty, CME Planning Committee Members, and the CME Office Reviewers have disclosed that they do not have any relevant financial relationships with commercial interests that would constitute a conflict of interest concerning this CME activity.

Learning Objectives: As a result of completing this activity, participants will be better able to:

  1. Interpret and identify clinical practices supported by the highest quality available evidence.
  2. Establish the optimal evaluation leading to a correct diagnosis for patients with pulmonary, critical care and sleep disorders.
  3. Translate the most current clinical information into the delivery of high quality care for patients.
  4. Integrate new treatment options for patients with pulmonary, critical care and sleep related disorders.

Learning Format: Case-based, interactive online course, including mandatory assessment questions (number of questions varies by case). Please also read the Technical Requirements.

CME Sponsor: The University of Arizona College of Medicine-Tucson

Current Approval Period: January 1, 2019-December 31, 2020

Financial Support Received: None

 

History of Present Illness

A 53-year-old woman from presented with a 3-year history of shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with pneumonia in 2016, but even after treatment with antibiotics, continued to require supplemental oxygen. A CT-guided biopsy of a lung nodule was performed but there were no diagnostic findings. A surgical lung biopsy at another hospital was done but the report is unavailable. She had been diagnosed with possible scleroderma and treated with mycophenolate for 3 months and then azathioprine. 

Past Medical History, Social History and Family History

Aside from her history as in the HPI she has a remarkably negative past medical history. She does not smoke. Family history is noncontributory.

Physical Examination

  • HEENT:  negative
  • Chest:  Fine crackles at both lung bases
  • Cardiovascular: regular rhythm, no murmur
  • Skin:  skin thickening on fingers and distal forearms, but not elsewhere.  No pitting, ulcerations or calcinosis

Radiology

A chest x-ray was performed (Figure 1).

Figure 1. PA chest radiography done on presentation.

Which of the following should be done? (Click on the correct answer to be directed to the second of six pages)

  1. Obtain previous radiography and biopsy reports
  2. Pulmonary function testing
  3. Thoracic CT scan
  4. 1 and 3
  5. All of the above

Cite as: Wesselius LJ. June 2019 pulmonary case of the month: Try, try again. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2019;18(6):144-51. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc026-19 PDF

Tuesday
Apr162019

Update and Arizona Thoracic Society Position Statement on Stem Cell Therapy for Lung Disease

Summary

Infusions of stem cells are increasingly being offered for a variety of diseases, including chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and cystic fibrosis. However, the potential for harm, the lack of any proven benefit, and the high fees that many of these programs charge make recommending stem cell therapy untenable. At the time of this writing (April 2019) it appears that stem cell therapy can be safely performed, although the long-term side effects remain unknown. However, the little data available show no benefit in meaningful outcomes, such as mortality, morbidity or patient well-being, for stem cell treatment of chronic lung disorders. Patients with severe, incurable diseases may be motivated to seek innovative therapies. We encourage such patients to contact their primary care physician or pulmonologist. Clinical trials in the United States and Canada investigating stem cell therapy for lung diseases can be found on the website of the National Institutes of Health at Clinicaltrials.gov. The Arizona Thoracic Society encourages regulatory agencies to protect the public health and take appropriate action against non-investigational, for-profit stem cell clinics when appropriate.

Introduction

A central component of the mission of medical societies is to translate new scientific information into patient education. There appears to be increasing direct-to-consumer advertising of untested, unapproved, and potentially ineffective “stem-cell” treatments for a variety of diseases, including lung disorders (1). One may come across information regarding stem cell therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders and fibrotic lung disease, in the United States and worldwide, on the internet, patient support groups, or other sources. Recently, a direct mailing to the home of one of the members of the Arizona Thoracic Society was received (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Direct mailing for stem cell therapy for several diseases including COPD received by one of the members of the Arizona Thoracic Society.

These programs are often characterized by:

  • Exorbitant fees
  • Misrepresentation of risks and benefits
  • Overreliance on, and advertisement of, patient testimony
  • Poor patient follow-up
  • Absence of regulatory oversight and objective clinical evidence for claimed benefits

Therefore, they differ substantially from therapies approved by legitimate regulatory agencies, from well-designed, controlled, and appropriately regulated clinical trials, and from regulated compassionate use of innovative cell therapies.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Stem cells can differentiate into several different lung cell types, including the alveolar epithelial cells. Since COPD is a disease associated with destruction of alveoli induced by cigarette smoke, the concept of rebuilding the alveoli through stem cell therapy is attractive. Pre-clinical trials in animal models have suggested regeneration of alveolar-like structures, repair of emphysematous lungs, and reduction of inflammatory responses, with the greatest success being in acute lung injury models.

Currently, regenerative therapies are divided into extrinsic therapeutic strategies and intrinsic cell therapy methods. Extrinsic cell therapy refers to the vascular infusion of (or endotracheal installation) of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and human lung stem cells (hLSCs). Intrinsic therapy refers to the delivery of small molecules (retinoid compounds have been the most studied) that can stimulate the endogenous lung stem/progenitor cells to regenerate and replace damaged structures.

A number of recent review articles have summarized the current state of research in the use of stem cells in COPD (2-4). These review articles all contain summaries of trials conducted to date using both extrinsic and intrinsic therapies. There have been several phase I clinical trials, primarily assessing safety, and a handful of small phase II clinical trials that have been negative for meaningful clinical outcomes. Sun et al. (3) point out that the available trials have all been conducted on patients with advanced COPD. The authors suggest that further research is required on how to enhance the engraftment of exogenous mesenchymal stem cells in damaged lungs. Further, considering the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of exogenous mesenchymal stem cells, they may be most effective potentially in treating acute lung disease, as opposed to chronic progressive disease with severe structural damage.

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive debilitating lung disease of unknown etiology characterized by a combination of histological changes, including extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, phenotypic changes of fibroblasts, and alveolar epithelial cells, the formation of fibroblastic foci, and scattered areas of aberrant wound healing interspersed with normal lung parenchyma (5).

There are two approved compounds for the treatment of IPF: pirfenidone and nintedanib. Pirfenidone is an antifibrotic compound with an unclear mechanism of action, targeting several molecules, including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (6). Nintedanib is a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) (7). While the use of pirfenidone and nintedanib has been shown to slow the progression of IPF, neither is curative and morbidity and mortality from IPF remains high (8,9).

Because of the inadequacy of therapy in IPF, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has attracted interest as a potential option. Early clinical studies have shown that the MSCs can be safely administered (5,10-12). A phase Ib study of endobronchially administered autologous adipose-derived MSCs showed not only acceptable safety outcomes, but also improvements in quality of life parameters (12). However, there were no significant differences in any of the studied functional parameters (FVC, FVC%pred. and DLCO% pred.) at baseline and 6 and 12 months following 3 endobronchial infusions of MSCs.

Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic syndrome usually resulting in a high mortality rate due to progressive lung disease. Several drugs targeting specific mutated cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) proteins are already in clinical trials. However, new therapies, based on stem cells, are also emerging. Interest has focused on induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. It is possible to make iPS cells using cells from people with CF, and then use gene editing to correct CFTR mutations in those cells (13). This suggests the possibility of re-implanting the corrected iPS cells into the lungs of people with CF to generate healthy lung cells. Currently, three trials examining the safety of stem cells in cystic fibrosis are ongoing according to Clinicaltrials.gov. 

Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

Four clinical trials are listed on Clinicaltrials.gov for ARDS and stem cells; one, which involved 3 patients, has been completed (14). No outcome information is available.

Other Lung Diseases

We are unaware of any human trials at this time with outcomes in other lung diseases.

Regulatory and Legal Actions

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Attorney General of New York have both expressed concern over stem cell therapy. The concerns follow reports of three patients becoming blind after receiving injections of stem cells into the eye and twelve patients who became seriously ill after receiving injections that purportedly contained stem cells from umbilical cord blood (15,16). The FDA has issued warning letters to stem cell clinics, including one letter claiming violation of Federal law, and another 20 warnings to clinics of that their claims and actions were subject to FDA approval. The NY Attorney has filed a lawsuit against a for-profit stem cell clinic, Park Avenue Stem Cell, claiming it performed unproven procedures on patients with a wide range of medical conditions, from erectile dysfunction to heart disease (17).

The Arizona Thoracic Society encourages further investigation into stem cell transplantation in lung disease. However, we do not at this time encourage non-investigational use of stem cells since the therapy has not been shown to have meaningful patient benefits. We also encourage state and local regulatory agencies in the Southwest to protect the public health and take appropriate action against non-investigational, for-profit stem cell clinics when appropriate.

References

  1. American Lung Association. Statement on Unproven Stem Cell Interventions for Lung Diseases (July 2016). Available at: https://www.thoracic.org/members/assemblies/assemblies/rcmb/working-groups/stem-cell/resources/statement-on-unproven-stem-cell-interventions-for-lung-diseases.pdf (accessed 4/5/19).
  2. Balkissoon R. Stem Cell Therapy for COPD: Where are we? Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis. 2018;5(2):148-53. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Sun Z, Li F, Zhou X, Chung KF, Wang W, Wang J. Stem cell therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current status of pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. J Thorac Dis. 2018 Feb;10(2):1084-98. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Cheng SL, Lin CH, Yao CL. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Administration in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: State of the Science. Stem Cells Int. 2017;2017:8916570. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Tzouvelekis A, Toonkel R, Karampitsakos T, Medapalli K, Ninou I, Aidinis V, Bouros D, Glassberg MK. Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Front Med (Lausanne). 2018 May 15;5:142. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Kolb M, Bonella F, Wollin L. Therapeutic targets in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Respir Med. 2017;131:49–57. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Fletcher S, Jones MG, Spinks K, et al. The safety of new drug treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2016;15:1483–9. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. King TE, Bradford WZ, Castro-Bernardini S, et al. Phase 3 trial of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:2083–92. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Richeldi L, du Bois RM, Raghu G, et al. Efficacy and safety of nintedanib in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:2071–82. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Tzouvelekis A, Ntolios P, Karampitsakos T, et al. Safety and efficacy of pirfenidone in severe idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a real-world observational study. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2017;46:48-53. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Tzouvelekis A, Koliakos G, Ntolios P, et al. Stem cell therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a protocol proposal. J Transl Med. 2011;9:182. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Tzouvelekis A, Paspaliaris V, Koliakos G, et al. A prospective, non-randomized, no placebo-controlled, phase Ib clinical trial to study the safety of the adipose derived stromal cells-stromal vascular fraction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Transl Med. 2013;11:171. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. Stem cells for cystic fibrosis therapy. Available at: https://www.cff.org/Research/Research-Into-the-Disease/Restore-CFTR-Function/Stem-Cells-for-Cystic-Fibrosis-Therapy/ (accessed 4/5/19).
  14. Clinicaltrials.gov. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (START). Available at: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT01775774?term=Stem+cells&cond=ARDS&rank=4 (accessed 4/5/19).
  15. Kuriyan AE, Albini TA, Townsend JH, et al. Vision loss after intravitreal injection of autologous "stem cells" for AMD. N Engl J Med. 2017 Mar 16;376(11):1047-53. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Grady D. 12 People hospitalized with infections from stem cell shots. NY Times. Dec. 20, 2018. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/20/health/stem-cell-shots-bacteria-fda.html?action=click&module=RelatedCoverage&pgtype=Article&region=Footer (accessed 4/9/19).
  17. Abelson R. N.Y. attorney general sues Manhattan stem cell clinic, citing rogue therapies. NY Times. April 4, 2019. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/04/health/stem-cells-lawsuit-new-york.html (accessed 4/9/19).

Cite as: Arizona Thoracic Society*. Update and Arizona Thoracic Society position statement on stem cell therapy for lung disease. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2019;18(4):82-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc020-19 PDF

*The below contributed to the update and position statement on stem cell therapy

  • Bhargavi Gali, MD
  • Michael B. Gotway, MD
  • Kenneth S. Knox, MD
  • Timothy T. Kuberski, MD
  • Stuart F. Quan, MD
  • George Parides, DO
  • Richard A. Robbins, MD
  • Gerald F. Schwartzberg, MD
  • Allen R. Thomas, MD
  • Lewis J. Wesselius, MD