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Articles from Other Journals

(Click on the title to go to the article summary, most recent first, date posted at end)

Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden. Hellmann MD, Ciuleanu TE, Pluzanski A, et al. N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 16 [Epub ahead of print] (4-17-18)

Four-gene Pan-African Blood Signature Predicts Progression to Tuberculosis. Suliman S, Thompson E, Sutherland J, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Apr 6. [Epub ahead of print] (4-10-18)

A Time-Motion Study of Primary Care Physicians' Work in the Electronic Health Record Era. Young RA, Burge SK, Kumar KA, Wilson JM, Ortiz DF. Fam Med. 2018 Feb;50(2):91-9. (3-28-18)

Impact of Temporary Methotrexate Discontinuation for 2 Weeks on Immunogenicity of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomised Clinical Trial. Park JK, Lee YJ, Shin K, Ha YJ, et al.  Ann Rheum Dis. 2018 Mar 23. pii: annrheumdis-2018-213222. (3-27-18)

Quantifying Population-Level Health Benefits and Harms of E-Cigarette Use in the United States. Soneji SS, Sung HY, Primack BA, Pierce JP, Sargent JD. PLoS One. 2018 Mar 14;13(3):e0193328. (3-15-18)

Effect of opioid vs nonopioid medications on pain-related function in patients with chronic back pain or hip or knee osteoarthritis pain: The SPACE randomized clinical trial. Krebs EE, Gravely A, Nugent S, et al. JAMA. 2018 Mar 6;319(9):872-82. (3-6-18)

Adolescent Exposure to Toxic Volatile Organic Chemicals from E-Cigarettes. Rubinstein ML, Delucchi K, Benowitz NL, et al. Pediatrics. 2018;141(4):e20173557. (3/5/18)

Electronic Cigarette Use and Progression from Experimentation to Established Smoking. Chaffee BW, Watkins SL, Glantz SA. Pediatrics. 2018;141(4):e20173594. (3/5/18)

Association of Cigarette, Cigar, and Pipe Use With Mortality Risk in the US Population. Christensen CH, Rostron B, Cosgrove C, et al. Association of Cigarette, Cigar, and Pipe Use With Mortality Risk in the US Population. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Feb 19. [Epub ahead of print] (2-22-18)

Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction. Svanes Ø, Bertelsen RJ, Lygre SH, et al.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Feb 16. [Epub ahead of print] (2-20-18)

Long-term Use of Inhaled Corticosteroids in COPD and the Risk of Fracture. Gonzalez AV, Coulombe J, Ernst P, Suissa S. Chest. 2018;153(2):321-8. (2-15-18)

Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: The Multimodal Approach of the Spanish ICU “Pneumonia Zero” Program.  Álvarez-Lerma F, Palomar-Martínez M, Sánchez-García M, et al. Crit Care Med 2018;46:181-8. (2-8-18) 

Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Coal Miners From 3 Clinics in Virginia. Blackley DJ, Reynolds LE, Short C, Carson R, Storey,E, Halldin,CN, Laney AS. JAMA 2018;319(5):50-1. (2-6-18)

Low cigarette consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: meta-analysis of 141 cohort studies in 55 study reports. Hackshaw A,  Morris JK, Boniface S, Tang JL, Milenković D. BMJ. 2018;360:j5855. (1-27-18)

Comparison of observed harms and expected mortality benefit for persons in the veterans health affairs lung cancer screening demonstration project. Caverly TJ, Fagerlin A, Wiener RS, Slatore CG, Tanner NT, Yun S, Hayward R. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print] (1-22-18)

Risk of thromboembolism in cisplatin versus carboplatin-treated patients with lung cancer. Kim ES, Baran AM, Mondo EL, et al. PLoS One. 2017 Dec 11;12(12):e0189410. (1-8-18)

Association of cardiovascular risk with inhaled long-acting bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A nested case-control study. Wang MT, Liou JT, Lin CW, Tsai CL, Wang YH, Hsu YJ, Lai JH. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Jan 2. [Epub ahead of print] (1-5-18)

Previously selected articles that were thought important but had received little attention were summarized under our “News” section. However, the work of publication (review, DOAJ, doi, social media, etc.) has become too arduous to do justice to these publications. Therefore, we are beginning a new section titled “News from Other Journals” where selected articles are briefly summarized. Important articles that are published in journals commonly read by pulmonologists, intensivists or sleep physicians will not necessarily be reviewed but articles that are in general medicine journals or lower impact journals that might be of interest to the practicing physician are selected. As always, there will be links to the article via CrossRef and/or PubMed.

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Tuesday
Apr172018

Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden

Hellmann MD, Ciuleanu TE, Pluzanski A, et al. N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 16 [Epub ahead of print]. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nivolumab, a PD-1 inhibitor, plus ipilimumab, an activator of cytotoxic T cells, have shown promise for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a phase 1 trial.  In this open-label, multipart, phase 3 trial, the authors examined progression-free survival with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy among patients with a high tumor mutational burden (≥10 mutations per megabase). Patients with stage IV or recurrent NSCLC that was not previously treated with chemotherapy were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab monotherapy, or chemotherapy. Progression-free survival among patients with a high tumor mutational burden was significantly longer with nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with chemotherapy. The 1-year progression-free survival rate was 42.6% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus 13.2% with chemotherapy, and the median progression-free survival was 7.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5 to 13.2) versus 5.5 months (95% CI, 4.4 to 5.8) (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.58; 97.5% CI, 0.41 to 0.81; P<0.001). The objective response rate was 45.3% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 26.9% with chemotherapy. The benefit of nivolumab plus ipilimumab over chemotherapy was broadly consistent within subgroups, including patients with a PD-L1 expression level of at least 1% and those with a level of less than 1%. The rate of grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events was 31.2% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 36.1% with chemotherapy. The results validate the benefit of nivolumab plus ipilimumab in NSCLC and the role of tumor mutational burden as a biomarker for patient selection.

Tuesday
Apr102018

Four-gene Pan-African Blood Signature Predicts Progression to Tuberculosis

Suliman S, Thompson E, Sutherland J, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Apr 6. [Epub ahead of print] [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients constitute an important target population for preventative measures as they are at high risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis but only 5-10% progress to develop TB during their lifetime. progression to disease. In a case-control study HIV-negative African cohort of exposed household contacts, the authors employed RNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Pair Ratio algorithm in a training/test set approach. Overall, 79 progressors, who developed tuberculosis between 3 and 24 months following exposure, and 328 matched non-progressors, who remained healthy during 24 months of follow-up, were investigated. A four-transcript signature (RISK4), derived from samples in a South African and Gambian training set, predicted progression up to two years before onset of disease in blinded test set samples from South Africa, The Gambia and Ethiopia with little population-associated variability and also validated on an external cohort of South African adolescents with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. By contrast, published diagnostic or prognostic tuberculosis signatures predicted on samples from some but not all 3 countries, indicating site-specific variability. Post-hoc meta-analysis identified a single gene pair, C1QC/TRAV27, that would consistently predict TB progression in household contacts from multiple African sites but not in infected adolescents without known recent exposure events.  This simple whole blood-based PCR test predicts tuberculosis in household contacts from diverse African populations, with potential for implementation in national TB contact investigation programs.

Wednesday
Mar282018

A Time-Motion Study of Primary Care Physicians' Work in the Electronic Health Record Era

Young RA, Burge SK, Kumar KA, Wilson JM, Ortiz DF. Fam Med. 2018 Feb;50(2):91-9. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electronic health records (EHRs) have lengthened the time required to care for patients in primary care clinics with EHRs. The authors directly observed family physician (FP) attendings, residents, and their ambulatory patients in 982 visits in clinics affiliated with 10 residencies of the Residency Research Network of Texas. The FPs were purposely chosen to reflect a diversity of patient care styles. We measured total visit time, previsit chart time, face-to-face time, non-face time, out-of-hours EHR work time, and total EHR work time. The mean (SD) visit length was 35.8 (16.6) minutes, not counting resident precepting time. The mean time components included 2.9 (3.8) minutes working in the EHR prior to entering the room, 16.5 (9.2) minutes of face-to-face time not working in the EHR, 2.0 (2.1) minutes working in the EHR in the room (which occurred in 73.4% of the visit s), 7.5 (7.5) minutes of non-face time (mostly EHR time), and 6.9 (7.6) minutes of EHR work outside of normal clinic operational hours (which occurred in 64.6% of the visits). The total time and total EHR time varied only slightly between faculty physicians, third-year and second-year residents. The authors conclude that primary care physicians spent more time working in the EHR than they spent in face-to-face time with patients in clinic visits.

Tuesday
Mar272018

Impact of Temporary Methotrexate Discontinuation for 2 Weeks on Immunogenicity of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomised Clinical Trial

Park JK, Lee YJ, Shin K, Ha YJ, et al.  Ann Rheum Dis. 2018 Mar 23. pii: annrheumdis-2018-213222. [CrossRef]  [PubMed]

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common disease and methotrexate (MTX) is often used to treat RA. The present study examined whether a 2-week methotrexate (MTX) discontinuation after vaccination improves the efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this prospective randomized parallel-group multicenter study, patients with RA on stable dose of MTX were randomized to continue MTX or to hold MTX for 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. The primary outcome was frequency of satisfactory vaccine response defined as greater than or equal to fourfold increase of hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer at 4 weeks after vaccination against ≥2 of four vaccine strains. The intention-to-treat population included 156 patients in the MTX-continue group and 160 patients in the MTX-hold group. More patients in MTX-hold group achieved satisfactory vaccine response than the MTX-continue group (75.5% vs 54.5%, p<0.001). Although it is late in influenza season in the US, this study suggests that a temporary MTX discontinuation for 2 weeks after vaccination improves the immunogenicity of seasonal influenza vaccination in patients with RA without increasing RA disease activity.

Thursday
Mar152018

Quantifying Population-Level Health Benefits and Harms of E-Cigarette Use in the United States

Soneji SS, Sung HY, Primack BA, Pierce JP, Sargent JD. PLoS One. 2018 Mar 14;13(3):e0193328. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help cigarette smokers quit smoking, yet they may also facilitate cigarette smoking for never-smokers. The authors quantified the balance of health benefits and harms associated with e-cigarette use at the population level using a Monte Carlo stochastic simulation model. Model parameters drawn from census counts, national health and tobacco use surveys, and published literature were used to calculate the expected years of life gained or lost from the impact of e-cigarette use on smoking cessation and transition to long-term cigarette smoking among never smokers.  The model estimated that 2,070 additional current cigarette smoking adults would quit smoking and remain continually abstinent from smoking for ≥7 years. However, the model also estimated 168,000 additional never-cigarette smoking adolescents would initiate cigarette smoking and eventually become daily cigarette smokers. Overall, the model estimated that e-cigarette use would lead to 1,510,000 years of life lost. The authors conclude that effective national, state, and local efforts are needed to reduce e-cigarette use among youth and young adults if e-cigarettes are to confer a net population-level benefit in the future.