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September 2019 Pulmonary Case of the Month: An HIV Patient with a Fever

William P. Diehl IV, DO

Nicholas Villalobos, MD


Department of Internal Medicine

University of New Mexico

Albuquerque, NM USA


Pulmonary Case of the Month CME Information

Completion of an evaluation form is required to receive credit and a link is provided on the last page of the activity. 

0.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™

Estimated time to complete this activity: 0.50 hours

Lead Author(s): William P. Diehl IV, DO. All Faculty, CME Planning Committee Members, and the CME Office Reviewers have disclosed that they do not have any relevant financial relationships with commercial interests that would constitute a conflict of interest concerning this CME activity.

Learning Objectives: As a result of completing this activity, participants will be better able to:

  1. Interpret and identify clinical practices supported by the highest quality available evidence.
  2. Establish the optimal evaluation leading to a correct diagnosis for patients with pulmonary, critical care and sleep disorders.
  3. Translate the most current clinical information into the delivery of high quality care for patients.
  4. Integrate new treatment options for patients with pulmonary, critical care and sleep related disorders.

Learning Format: Case-based, interactive online course, including mandatory assessment questions (number of questions varies by case). Please also read the Technical Requirements.

CME Sponsor: The University of Arizona College of Medicine-Tucson

Current Approval Period: January 1, 2019-December 31, 2020

Financial Support Received: None


History of Present Illness

A 33-year old transgender male to female presented from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic for two months of fevers, intermittent shortness of breath, cough with blood streaked sputum, headache, and nausea. The clinic provider was concerned when labs showed up trending HIV viral load (3.3 million copies) and an absolute CD4 count of 57.

Past Medical History, Social History and Family History

The patient had a history of stage-III HIV diagnosed in 2014 on bictegravir, emtricitabine, tenofovir (Biktarvy) and latent tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed 2017 on isoniazid and B6. She is from Nicaragua and arrived in Albuquerque, NM in 2017. Social history is pertinent for sex trafficking and methamphetamine use.

Physical Examination

Upon admission, the patient’s vital signs were notable for a temperature of 39.2 degrees Celsius, blood pressure of 114/71 mmHg, oxygen saturation of 95% on room air with a respiratory rate of 18 breaths per minute. Physical exam was notable for an absence of rash, palpable lymphadenopathy or cachexia.

Which of the following should be done? (Click on the correct answer to be directed to the second of six pages)

  1. Blood cultures
  2. Lumbar puncture
  3. Sputum for AFB and tuberculosis
  4. 1 & 3
  5. All of the above

Cite as: Diehl WP IV, Villalobos N. September 2019 pulmonary case of the month: an HIV patient with a fever. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2019;19(3):87-94. doi: PDF 

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