1. The frontal chest radiograph shows a right-sided pneumothorax

The chest radiograph shows a right-sided visceral pleural line, representing a right-sided pneumothorax (Figure 2).

Figure 2.  Frontal chest radiography shows symmetric basal reticulation with a visceral pleural line (arrows) visible in the right lung base, representing a pneumothorax. Faint linear and reticular opacities are present in the bases bilaterally.

Additionally, the frontal chest radiograph shows basal linear and reticular opacities. While some of this finding, in the right medial base, could be attributed to passive atelectasis in the presence of the pneumothorax, similar findings are present in the medial left base in the left retrocardiac region. There is no evidence of small nodules, and lung volumes are not abnormally decreased. The mediastinal contours appear normal. No evidence of pleural thickening is seen

The patient was treated with right-sided thoracostomy tube drainage. She denied history of recent trauma or severe coughing. Focused discussion with the patient disclosed a previous right-sided pneumothorax several years earlier.

Which of the following entities is associated with spontaneous pneumothorax? (Click on the correct answer to proceed to the third of eight panels)

  1. Endometriosis
  2. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
  3. Malignant pleural mesothelioma
  4. Metastatic sarcoma to the lung
  5. All of the above