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Editorials

Last 50 Editorials

(Click on title to be directed to posting, most recent listed first)

A Labor Day Warning
Keep Your Politics Out of My Practice
The Highest Paid Clerk
The VA Mission Act: Funding to Fail?
What the Supreme Court Ruling on Binding Arbitration May Mean to
   Healthcare 
Kiss Up, Kick Down in Medicine 
What Does Shulkin’s Firing Mean for the VA? 
Guns, Suicide, COPD and Sleep
The Dangerous Airway: Reframing Airway Management in the Critically Ill 
Linking Performance Incentives to Ethical Practice 
Brenda Fitzgerald, Conflict of Interest and Physician Leadership 
Seven Words You Can Never Say at HHS
Equitable Peer Review and the National Practitioner Data Bank 
Fake News in Healthcare 
Beware the Obsequious Physician Executive (OPIE) but Embrace Dyad
   Leadership 
Disclosures for All 
Saving Lives or Saving Dollars: The Trump Administration Rescinds Plans to
Require Sleep Apnea Testing in Commercial Transportation Operators
The Unspoken Challenges to the Profession of Medicine
EMR Fines Test Trump Administration’s Opposition to Bureaucracy 
Breaking the Guidelines for Better Care 
Worst Places to Practice Medicine 
Pain Scales and the Opioid Crisis 
In Defense of Eminence-Based Medicine 
Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Transportation Industry—
   The Time is Now 
Mitigating the “Life-Sucking” Power of the Electronic Health Record 
Has the VA Become a White Elephant? 
The Most Influential People in Healthcare 
Remembering the 100,000 Lives Campaign 
The Evil That Men Do-An Open Letter to President Obama 
Using the EMR for Better Patient Care 
State of the VA
Kaiser Plans to Open "New" Medical School 
CMS Penalizes 758 Hospitals For Safety Incidents 
Honoring Our Nation's Veterans 
Capture Market Share, Raise Prices 
Guns and Sleep 
Is It Time for a National Tort Reform? 
Time for the VA to Clean Up Its Act 
Eliminating Mistakes In Managing Coccidioidomycosis 
A Tale of Two News Reports 
The Hands of a Healer 
The Fabulous Fours! Annual Report from the Editor 
A Veterans Day Editorial: Change at the VA? 
A Failure of Oversight at the VA 
IOM Releases Report on Graduate Medical Education 
Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Beyond the AHI 
Multidisciplinary Discussion (MDD) in Interstitial Lung Disease; Some
   Reflections 
VA Administrators Breathe a Sigh of Relief 
VA Scandal Widens
Don’t Fire Sharon Helman-At Least Not Yet 

 

For complete editorial listings click here.

The Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care welcomes submission of editorials on journal content or issues relevant to the pulmonary, critical care or sleep medicine.

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Entries in medical practice (2)

Friday
Jul272018

Keep Your Politics Out of My Practice

“Nothing so needs reforming as other people's habits. Fanatics will never learn that, though it be written in letters of gold across the sky.”

-Mark Twain

Politicians have repeatedly inserted themselves into exam rooms and under hospital gowns, telling doctors what they can and cannot discuss with patients; forcing providers to recite scripted medical advice they know to be factually inaccurate; and even instructing physicians to prioritize the financial interests of private companies over the health of their patients (1,2).

In 2011 Florida passed a sweeping law barring doctors from routinely asking patients whether they had guns in their homes, counseling them on common-sense firearm storage measures or recording any information about gun ownership in their medical files. Four states (Pennsylvania, Ohio, Colorado, and Texas) have passed legislation relating to disclosure of information about exposure to chemicals used in the process of hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”). Some new laws require physicians to discuss specific practices that may not be necessary or appropriate at the time of a specific encounter with a patient. For example, New York enacted legislation in 2010 that requires physicians and other health care practitioners to offer terminally ill patients “information and counseling regarding palliative care and end-of-life options appropriate to the patient, including . . . prognosis, risks and benefits of the various options; and the patient's legal rights to comprehensive pain and symptom management.” Still other laws would require physicians to provide — and patients to receive — diagnostic tests or medical interventions whose use is not supported by evidence, including tests or interventions that are invasive and required to be performed even without the patient's consent. In Virginia, a bill requiring women to undergo ultrasonography before having an abortion was passed despite objections from the American College of Physicians. Arizona required physicians to tell women that drug-induced abortions may be “reversible” a claim that is unsupported by scientific evidence. A growing number of states have instituted mandatory waiting periods for abortions when there is no apparent medical need.

Healthcare providers who do not observe with these laws could face fines, license revocation, and even jail time for failure to comply. Fortunately, many have been struck down by the courts. However, a new tact for some has been to allow objection to certain types of medical treatment such as abortions based on the healthcare provider’s religious or moral beliefs. These providers have a new defender in the Trump administration (3). The top civil rights official at the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is creating the Division of Conscience and Religious Freedom to “protect” doctors, nurses and other health care workers who refuse to take part in procedures like abortion or treat certain people because of moral or religious objections. "Never forget that religious freedom is a primary freedom, that it is a civil right that deserves enforcement and respect," said Roger Severino, an anti-abortion Catholic lawyer who directs HHS's Office for Civil Rights. Here in Arizona healthcare professionals are not required to provide services that conflict with their religious beliefs, including abortion, abortion-inducing medication, emergency contraception, end of life care, and collection of umbilical cord blood (4).

Two recent incidents in Arizona involving pharmacists have brought this law under scrutiny (5). Hilde Hall, a transgender woman in Arizona, was allegedly denied hormone prescriptions by a CVS pharmacist in Fountain Hills. She was unable to fill the prescription at that location and despite her doctor requesting it, the pharmacist refused to transfer the order. CVS apparently fired the pharmacist. This comes within weeks of the case of Nicole Arteaga, who was denied medication for a nonviable pregnancy by a Walgreens pharmacist in Peoria, Brian Hreniuc PharmD. The Arizona State Board of Pharmacy has agreed to review Ms. Arteaga’s complaint against Dr. Hreniuc.

The Arizona Republic put it well. “The person in the white coat behind the counter should be there to help. To answer questions and ensure that the patient understands what the medicine is, how to take it and is aware of possible side-effects. Not to humiliate, question or refuse to serve the client” (5).  Assuming the accounts in the Arizona Republic are accurate, both pharmacists committed several transgressions of the code of ethics of the American Pharmacists Association including a commitment to the patient’s welfare; protecting the dignity of the patient; serving the patient in a private and confidential manner; respecting the autonomy and dignity of each patient; promoting the right of self-determination; recognizing individual self-worth; and acknowledging that colleagues and other health professionals may differ in the beliefs and values they apply to the care of the patient (6).

Whether the Arizona State Board of Pharmacy will decide to enforce professional standards or uphold a politically motivated law is unclear. At a time when pharmacists seek to extend their scope of practice, the behavior of these two pharmacists make one question who they would serve if given more responsibility-the patient or themselves? Also disappointing has been the lack of condemnation from other pharmacists and pharmacy professional groups such as the Arizona Pharmacists Association. This lack of action makes expansion of the scope of practice questionable. We as healthcare providers are entitled to our politics just like anyone else but the line is crossed when you impose your politics on me or my patients.  

Richard A. Robbins, MD*

Editor, SWJPCC

References

  1. Weinberger SE, Lawrence HC 3rd, Henley DE, Alden ER, Hoyt DB. Legislative interference with the patient-physician relationship. N Engl J Med. 2012 Oct 18;367(16):1557-9. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Rampell C. Politicians are invading our medical exam rooms. Washington Post. October 19, 2015. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/politicians-playing-doctor/2015/10/19/7b1af280-769e-11e5-bc80-9091021aeb69_story.html?utm_term=.ae6df6d65643 (accessed 7/22/18).
  3. Kodjak A. Trump admin will protect health workers who refuse services on religious grounds. NPR. January 18, 2018. Available at: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/01/18/578811426/trump-will-protect-health-workers-who-reject-patients-on-religious-grounds (accessed 7/22/18).
  4. Center for Arizona Policy. Arizona religious freedom laws. January 2014. Available at: http://www.azpolicypages.com/religious-liberty/arizona-religious-liberty-laws/ (accessed 7/22/18).
  5. Price TF. CVS pharmacist who refused transgender patient's prescription abused Arizona law. Arizona Republic. July 20, 2018. Available at: https://www.azcentral.com/story/opinion/op-ed/2018/07/20/hilde-hall-transgender-prescription-denied-cvs-pharmacy/809450002/ (accessed 7/22/18).
  6. American Pharmacists Association. Code of Ethics. October 27, 1994. Available at: https://www.pharmacist.com/code-ethics (accessed 7/22/18).

Cite as: Robbins RA. Keep your politics out of my practice. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2018;17(1):42-4. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc096-18 PDF 

*The views expressed are the author's and do not necessarily represent those of the American Thoracic Society or its affiliates.

Friday
Feb232018

Linking Performance Incentives to Ethical Practice 

Health spending is a huge part of the United States economy as it is a large business. We all have seen increasing inclusion of corporate practices in health care. One such inclusion is the incentive programs which have at their core the goal of production of the desired behavioral outcomes directly related either to performance output or extraordinary achievement. However, management influence on the organization’s ethical environment and culture can inadvertently encourage or endorse unethical behavior despite the best intentions. One way would be failing to link performance incentives to ethical practice. When leaders create strong incentives to accomplish a goal without creating equally strong incentives to adhere to ethical practice in achieving the desired goal, they effectively set the stage for ethical malpractice. Incentivizing ethical practice is equally important as incentivizing other behaviors (1). In the health care industry, unlike in the sales industry, professionalism and patient care are not like sale numbers and the costs of not providing excellent care can be serious. When emphasis is more about good performance numbers than accurate performance numbers, hospital accreditation reviews may result in, issuance of orders that are impossible to fulfill, or finding scapegoats to blame in a crisis. This can have powerful effects in shaping the organization’s environment and how staff members perceive the organization, their place in it, and the behaviors that are valued. Ironically, it isn’t unusual for leaders to assume all is fine from an ethical perspective when in fact it may not be. Research has shown that the higher in the organizational level the healthier the perceptions of organizational ethics is perceived (2).

It takes a great deal more than high ideals and good intentions to have ethical authority. It requires commitment and a proactive effort to achieve high standards. If executives are to meet the challenge of fostering an ethical environment and culture, it’s essential that they cultivate the required specific knowledge, skills, and habits. More and more, the public expects its leaders to hold themselves and their employees accountable and high on that expectation is ethical practice.

A focused example is the current opioid crises. In 2004 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services added pain scale as the 5th vital sign. Subsequently, both the Department of Veterans Affairs and The Joint Commission mandated a pain scale as the 5th vital sign (3-8). These pain scales ask patients to rate their pain on a scale of 1-10. The Joint Commission mandated that "Pain is to be assessed in all patients” and would give hospitals "Requirements for Improvement" if they failed to meet this standard (8). The Joint Commission also published a book in 2000 for purchase as part of required continuing education seminar (8). The book, sponsored by the opiate manufacturer Purdue Pharma (maker of oxycodone), cited studies that claimed, "there is no evidence that addiction is a significant issue when persons are given opioids for pain control." It also called doctors' concerns about addictive side effects "inaccurate and exaggerated." The health organizations used patient satisfaction scores for Performance Incentives and some patients who were addicted or on their way to becoming addicted would complain to administrators when they did not get drugs they were seeking.

No one excuses the unethical practice of widespread prescription of opioids without sufficient medical oversight. However, intrusion by unqualified bureaucrats, administrators and politician’s incentivizing more pain medications and punishing appropriate care likely contributed to the current crisis. In November 2017 four cities in West Virginia teamed up to file suit against The Joint Commission over the organization’s handling of pain management standards (9). In healthcare, physicians must advocate for their patients, build trust, insist on high standards of care, and participate creatively in improving the health care system in a fiscally responsible way (10). We should hold firm to pressures from manufacturers, administrators, and medical boards s to do what is in the best interests of our patients. Preserving the standards of professionalism in medicine while maintaining the highest levels of ethical standards has the best chance of healing this opiate epidemic. Let's maintain the trust and professionalism of our discipline during this crisis. 

F. Brian Boudi, MD

Associate Editor, SWJPCC

References

  1. Wynia MK. Performance measures for ethics quality. Eff Clin Pract. 1999;2(6):294-9. [PubMed]
  2. Treviño LK. Ethical culture: What do we know? Fellows Meeting, July 2003, Ethical Research Center. Available at: www.ethics.org/download.asp?fl=/downloads/Ethical_Culture_Summary.pdf; last accessed December 18, 2006.
  3. Practice guidelines for acute pain management in the perioperative setting. A report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Pain Management, Acute Pain Section. Anesthesiology. 1995 Apr;82(4):1071-81. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Gordon DB, Dahl JL, Miaskowski C, McCarberg B, Todd KH, Paice JA, Lipman AG, Bookbinder M, Sanders SH, Turk DC, Carr DB. American pain society recommendations for improving the quality of acute and cancer pain management: American Pain Society Quality of Care Task Force. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Jul 25;165(14):1574-80. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. National Pain Management Coordinating Committee. Pain as the 5Th vital sign toolkit. Department of Veterans Affairs. October 2000. Available at: https://www.va.gov/PAINMANAGEMENT/docs/Pain_As_the_5th_Vital_Sign_Toolkit.pdf (accessed 2/22/17).
  6. Baker DW. History of The Joint Commission's Pain Standards: Lessons for Today's Prescription Opioid Epidemic. JAMA. 2017 Mar 21;317(11):1117 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Apfelbaum JL, Chen C, Mehta SS, Gan TJ. Postoperative pain experience: results from a national survey suggest postoperative pain continues to be undermanaged. Anesth Analg. 2003;97(2):534-540. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Moghe S. Opioid history: From 'wonder drug' to abuse epidemic. CNN. October 14, 2016. Available at: http://www.cnn.com/2016/05/12/health/opioid-addiction-history/ (accessed 2/22/18).
  9. Sullivan W, Plaster L. Four West Virginia cities sue The Joint Commission. Emergency Physician Monthly. December 5, 2017. Available at: http://epmonthly.com/article/four-west-virginia-cities-sue-joint-commission/ (accessed 2/22/18).   
  10. The unspoken challenges to the profession of medicine. Boudi FB, Chan CS. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2017;14(6):222-4. [CrossRef]

Cite as: Boudi FB. Linking performance incentives to ethical practice. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2018;16(2):96-8. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc036-18 PDF