Sunday
Apr022017

April 2017 Critical Care Case of the Month

Robert A. Raschke, MD

Banner University Medical Center-Phoenix

Phoenix, AZ USA

 

Critical Care Case of the Month CME Information

Members of the Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and California Thoracic Societies and the Mayo Clinic are able to receive 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™ for each case they complete. Completion of an evaluation form is required to receive credit and a link is provided on the last panel of the activity. 

0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™

Estimated time to complete this activity: 0.25 hours 

Lead Author(s): Robert A. Raschke, MD.  All Faculty, CME Planning Committee Members, and the CME Office Reviewers have disclosed that they do not have any relevant financial relationships with commercial interests that would constitute a conflict of interest concerning this CME activity.

Learning Objectives:
As a result of this activity I will be better able to:

  1. Correctly interpret and identify clinical practices supported by the highest quality available evidence.
  2. Will be better able to establsh the optimal evaluation leading to a correct diagnosis for patients with pulmonary, critical care and sleep disorders.
  3. Will improve the translation of the most current clinical information into the delivery of high quality care for patients.
  4. Will integrate new treatment options in discussing available treatment alternatives for patients with pulmonary, critical care and sleep related disorders.

Learning Format: Case-based, interactive online course, including mandatory assessment questions (number of questions varies by case). Please also read the Technical Requirements.

CME Sponsor: University of Arizona College of Medicine

Current Approval Period: January 1, 2017-December 31, 2018

Financial Support Received: None

 

History of Present Illness

A 20-year-old woman was transferred from another medical center for care. She was pregnant and initially presented with a one day history of crampy abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting after eating old, bad tasting chicken two days previously. She had pain of her right arm and a non-displaced humeral fracture was seen on x-ray. The etiology of the fracture was unclear. Her illness rapidly progressed to respiratory distress requiring intubation. The fetus had deceleration of heart tones leading to a cesarean section and delivery of a non-viable infant. Subsequently, she had rapid progression of shock and anuria.

Past Medical History

She had a previous history of a seizure disorder which was managed with levetiracetam, clonazepam, and folic acid. There was a previous intentional opiate overdose 2 years earlier. One month prior to admission she had visited her husband in Iraq. After returning to the US 3 weeks prior to admission, she developed a sore throat and was treated with penicillin. She smokes tobacco hookah and marijuana. There is a positive family history of gout.

Physical Examination

  • Vital signs: heart rate 109, blood pressure 102/78 mm Hg while on norepinephrine, respiratory rate 22, temperature 36.5º C.
  • General: She was sedated and intubated. She had a splint on her right arm.
  • Lungs: clear anteriorly
  • Heart: regular rhythm without murmur
  • Abdomen: firm without palpable organomegaly or masses.
  • Neurological examination: There was movement of all extremities. Muscle tone was normal. Deep tendon reflexes were normal. Plantar reflexes were down going.
  • Skin: diffuse erythematous macular popular rash on the trunk and back (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Photograph of patient’s back showing rash.

Initial Laboratory Evaluation

  • CBC: hemoglobin 14.5 gm/dL, platelet count 299,000 cells/mcL, WBC 41,000 cells/mcL, vacuolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes were noted
  • Electrolytes: Na+ 135 mmol/L, K+ 4.9 mmol/L, Cl- 95 mmol/L, HCO3- 18 mmol/L
  • Renal function: creatinine 3.9 mg/dL, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 59 mg/dL
  • Liver enzymes: AST 294 (normal 8-48 U/L), ALT 303 (normal 7-55 U/L), ALP 187 (normal 45-115 U/L).       
  • Glucose: 58

Which of the following should be done immediately? (Click on the correct answer to proceed to the second of five pages)

  1. Bedside echocardiography
  2. Liver biopsy
  3. Urine drug screen
  4. 1 and 3
  5. All of the above

Cite as: Raschke RA. April 2017 critical care case of the month. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care. 2017;14(4):134-40. doi: https://doi.org/10.13175/swjpcc039-17 PDF

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